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Ch 2 Models of Development Textbook notes and definition

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PSYC 357
Wendy Loken Thornton

Models of Development Nature and Nurture in AdulthoodLife span Understanding of development as continuous from childhood perspectivethrough old ageIncludes focus on social or contextual influences on development Contextual Effects of social processes on changes within individualinfluences on developmentDevelopmental Term replace developmental psychologystarting to replace sciencebecause both nurture and nature affect changes in lifeScienceunderstand systematic effects of multiple influencesView individuals continue to grow and change over entire course of livesUnderstand interactions among and within each level biological to socialTries to explain underlying process instead of describing descriptive approachused for many decades to establish ages which different events occurNichepickingChilds genetically based abilities lead that child to select certain activities that further enhance development of those abilitiesonce started down particular pathway further changes occur that influence later development of those abilitiesGenetic and environmental factors work together to influence direction that childrens lives takeGerontologyScientific study of aging processExamine development prior to old age Organismic modelnature or genetics is regarded as prime mover in developmentGrowth in childhood and beyondmanifestation of genetic predisposition as expressed in physical and mental development of individual genetic predisposition as expressed in physical and mental development of person Qualitative or structure alterations in person psychological qualities such as intelligence and personality are cause of changeBasis for stage theories of developmentchanges over life span occurs in leaps or steps rather than continuous fashionMechanistic modelView nurture or environment is regards as prime mover in development Growth throughout lifethrough exposure to experiences that present new learning opportunitiesexposure is gradual so assume no clearcut or identifiable stages therefore development is smooth continuous set of gradations as acquire new experiencesInteractionist View that genetics and environments interacts in complex ways and modelindividual actively participates in their development through reciprocal relations with the environment Developmental science most closely represent Proposition of multidirectionalityassume plasticity in development Multidirectionality Principle that not all systems develop at same rate with personof developmentsome functions may show positive changes and others negative changes over timeEven within same function same individual may show gains in one area losses in another stability in third domainMultiple paths in developmentdoes not proceed in linear stages on single pathwayPlasticityProposal that course of development may be altered depending on
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