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ch 4 Physical changes Textbook notes and definition

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PSYC 357
Wendy Loken Thornton

Physical ChangesSkinMidlate 30sskin starts to show small wrinkles slight drooping or loss of resilience some color changesIncreasing agemore translucenteasier to see underlying bones and veins especially in handsDiscolorations and small outgrowths accumulate50sespecially face shows distinctive marks of agingSurfaceexpression of changes occurring within skins 3 layersEpidermisoutermost layerthin covering of skin cells that protects deeper 2 layersovertime lose regular patterning although change not visible to naked eyeDermismiddle layermore noticeable as cells responsible for skins flexibility and elasticity decrease their functioning collagen and elasticproteinCollagen undergoes crosslinksskin becomes less flexible Elastinbecome less able to return to its original shape after stretched after many repeated movementssebaceous glands provide oils that lubricate skin become less activeskin surface more dry and vulnerable to damage from being rubbedchafedSubcutaneous fat layerbottomcushioninggive skin opacity and smoothing curves of arms legs faceMiddle adulthoodlayer starts thinning less support for layers above itexacerbates wrinkling and sagging g caused by dermisLentigo senilusage spotsdiscoloured areas starts to develop brown pigmentationmore likely in sunexposed areas of face hands armspigmented outgrowths moles and elevations of small blood vessels on skin surface angiomas can developdiscoloration most visible in fair skinned Capillaries and arteries may dilatemore visible due to loss of subcutaneous fatLarge irregularities in blood vessels varicose veins may developappear on skin of legsappearance can change fast with agingNails toenailsgrow more slowlymay be yellowed thicker ridgedmay develop fungal infections in toenailsthicken and separate from nail bed Skin aginggenetic background mostrolefair skinneddisplay more rapid effects of aging than dark more ndLifestyle habits2 greatest influence sun cause photoaging Cosmeticsmoisturizer with SPF 15 and UVAUVB protectionuseddailycan help counteract fragility sensitivity dryness of exposedareasaddition of alphahydroxy acid AHA agents to moisturizer can help stimulate cell growth and renewal to offset sun damageTretinoin vitamin Aantiwrinkle agenthelp preserve collagen matrix of skincombined with moisturizertreat changes in pigmentationother photoaging consequences Antiaging treatments for faceplastic surgeondermatologist Most popular injection of botulinum toxin botoxsyringe with small amount of nerve poison injected to area of concern ex Foreheadparalyze musclerelax skin around itcause temporary reduction in appearance of wrinkleMay inject artificial fillers laser resurfacing treatments microdermabrasionAppearanceSome changes in teethgumsSkin changesappearance of eyes bags small lines at creases crows feet areas of dark pigmentationpuffinessNeed for eyeglassesincrease in middle adulthoodPhotoagingAge changes caused by radiation sunultraviolet rays accelerate process of crosslinking cause mutations that later protein synthesis by cells and increase production of free radicalsSunscreensun protection factor SPF measure how long you can stay in sun before burningspf should at least 15 SPF and block both UVA and UVB lightHairHair does not literally turn graynumber of pigmented colored hairs diminishes over time while number of hairs that no longer are pigmented increases Loses pigmentation because of production of melaningives hair its color slows and eventually ceasesVariation of gray hair occursLossresults from destruction of germination centers that produce hair in hair folliclesAndrogenetic alopeciacondition which hair follicles stop producing long thick pigmented hair terminal hair leading to baldness by producing short fine unpigmented largely invisible hair vellus haireventually vellus hair not visiblebecause cant protrudes form follicle which shrunkMost common form of pattern hair loss in aging in male and female Affect 95 men 20 womenHair stops growing on top of head but may appear in larger amounts elsewhere ex Chin f earseyebrows mPharmaceutical companieshelpchemicals applied to scalpminoxidil Rogaine or herbal remedies and surgically implanted hair plugsOral finasteride propeciaradical alternative No cure for gray hair or baldness but improvements in products that stimulate hair growth Hamiltonnorwood scale m Ludwig scale FBody buildOld agebody continuously changing in size and shapeShorter as get oldermore in womenHeight decreaseweakening of vertebraespine collapses and shortens in lengthSize changelean tissue or fatfree mass FFM decreasesincrease in BMIOverall body weight in adulthood shows upsidedown Ushaped trend most increase weight from 20s until 50s afterdecreasemost weight gain during middle adulthood due to increase in BMIaccumulation of body fat around waist and hips middleage spreadLoss of body weight in later yearsnot due to loss of accumulated fatsuffer reduction of FFM due to loss of muscle mass even if maintain high levels of activitySome older adults continue to gain weightBMI at obese categoriesMid1990s and mid 2000s older adults overweightincreased from 6069 and obeseincrease 2231Exerciseeffects on physiological and psychological wellbeingSocial physique anxietyextent to which one is afraid of what other people think of ones bodyexercise help older adults feel more fit
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