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PSYC 357 (50)

ch 13 death and dying

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PSYC 357
Wendy Loken Thornton

Death and DyingDyingPeriod during which an organism loses its viabilitySymptomsinvolve pain and suffering for patient and indirectly for family Final period of life can also involve emotional and spiritual growthacceptanceability to transcend painful physical symptoms Mortality dataStatistics derived from death Factors that influence course of lifemortality can be regarded as ultimate dependent variable in study of physical and behavioural aspect of healthno question on validity cause person already deadMostly validindicate outcomes of particular environmental conditionsdisease processesnot always 100question about validity of cause of deathdebate about point at which death occurs life supportCause of death must be verified by coronermedical examiner who must code causes of death through external examination or autopsythen recorded on death certificate coding systemworldWHO international Classification of Diseasemany casescause of deathmay be due to symptoms prior to death if under medical supervisor but if death can only be performed under autopsymedical procedurebody openedinternal organsstructure examinedlab testof body before death for cause of deathcontribute to scientific literature Useful index of population health Deatholdest sectors of populationmore people alive until reach age at which death would normal occur few childyoungmiddle deathAge specific Number of deaths per 100k of a particular age group death rateDeath statistics may be incorrect because more deaths occur in smaller proportion of the populationapply correction leads to ageadjusted death rateAgeadjusted Mortality statistic calculate by obtaining weighted averages of agespecific death death raterates with weights reflecting proportion of individuals in that age group in populationWeighted sum based on each groups death rate and size within populationDeath rate that takes into account fact more deaths occur in older age groups used to measure a populations heathHelp US conclude the population became healthier in 2007 then 2006death rates continues to decreasemain contributor declinedecreases in ageadjusted death rates for most chronic diseases but death rates from accidentsdidnt changebut rose steadily in recent yearsProvide number that controls for age distribution of population to make it possible to compare relative health of nationsUnhealthiest countrieslocated in subSaharan Africahighest crude death ratesmajority deathinfectiousparasitic diseasehighest rate in Zimbabwe HIVAIDSCardiovascular diseasehighest ageadjusted death rates in Kazakhstan Ukraine AfghanistanMarital status and education2 significant predictors of mortality Age adjusted death rateNever marriedway higher vs ever marriedwidoweddivorcedCollege education or betterlower mortality rateseducation relate to well established relation between social status and mortality since mid19th centurymen in labouring and trade occupationshigher death rates vs professional class due to higher risk of coronary heart disease both gender low SEShigher risk death vs higher SES because more likely suffer from communicable diseases exposure to lead and workrelated injuriesPatterns of jobs hold throughout adulthoodrelated to mortalitylower in men who move up from manual to professionalmanagerial occupation if hold string of unrelated jobshigher rates of early mortality vs stable career progressionsStressimportant higher subjective distresshigher mortalityon job stressmajor contributor to overall distress especially job stress in from of lack of control over work conditionsCultural 1Centuries to early middle agesdeath considered tameaccepted as natural part perspectiveof life neither to be avoided nor exaltedWestern 2Late middle agesdeath as time of final reckoning with god began evolveattached history of significance to personal tombs and epitaphs
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