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Healthpsych Ch1.docx

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PSYC 365
David Cox

Ch 1 - What is health psych o Psychological principles applied to understand and improve health and health care  Behavioural medicine – concerned w/ relationship btw health & behaviour  Health psychology – proposed by matarazzo. application of psych principles to diagnosis and treatment of illness as well as to people’s attempts to maintain health and well being.  Health means more than just lack of illness. It suggests good quality of life  Psychosomatic medicine – approach where particular medical complaint is viewed as being result of underlying chronic emotional conflict that ultimately surfaces as physiological symptoms (eg. High blood pressure connected to inability to express feelings of anger appropriately) - Development of health psych o Behaviourism (Miller) – after germ theory many illnesses became a problem of choice. Behaviourally, Miller discussed a main problem of non-compliance. (words like adherence or cooperation are more common today). He described non compliance through:  Gradient of reinforcement  Gradual weakening of a behaviour the further in time from the reinforcement of the behaviour. (reinforcement for a medical regiment is delayed) this delay is known as delayed gratification.  Compliance rates higher for regimens bringing in rapid symptom reduction  Compliance rates lowest for conditions that are asymptomatic (ppl stop taking meds for high blood pressure soon after prescription)  People less likely to comply if reasons vague and ambiguous. More likely if specific and relevant. o Cognition and Personality (Krantz)  Cognitive restructuring – therapeutic intervention aimed at changing people’s stress prone interpretations of events  Psychology of smoking  Obesity discussed with a biopsychosocial approach  Different perspective on compliance. Found patient-physician miscommunication – patient understanding less than physician expects. Compliance implies unidirectional communication o Coping Styles  Strategies that individuals employ to deal with stresses caused by ever changing demands of the environment  Rodin and Salovey focused more on the ways in which people cop with illness and its impacts on life  Monitors vs Blunters – monitors information seekers, blunters info avoiders o Psychoneuroimmunology  Study of relationship btw psychological state and immune system function  Breakthrough came with immunocompetence (status of immune system) tests through blood tests and saliva samples  Gave health psych an opportunity to produce empirical proof of hypothesized relationships between mind and body o In Conc: same general topics but expansion of approaches (eg. More cognitive)  Intereventions integrate behavioural and cognitive theories  Field still developing - Rise of Health Psych o Profiles of illness and health in Canada have been changing.  1900: Used to be acute, infectious disease (eg. Influenza, pneumonia)  1950-2000: More recently, it has become circulatory disease and cancer  now focus on preventability of diseases through lifestyle change  shift focus from cure to prevention – involves learning, believing, thinking o most north American deaths from respiratory disease, then tuberculosis - Biopsychosocial Approach o A model that suggests that biological, psychological, and social factors are all involved in any given state of health or illness  Because we need multiple perspectives. Because prevention is important, and it could be by inoculation, lifestyle changes, or government policies (seat-belts) o Demands communication among health care practitioners and social scientists and requires mutual respect in contribution  Can be difficult as MD’s are trained in the Biomedical model – an approach suggesting that health is best understood in terms of biology  They are entrenched in this model, as psychologists hav
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