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Psyc 365 ch 2.docx

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PSYC 365
David Cox

Psyc 365- ch2 Systems of the body • Homeostasis= the dynamic physiological response n the part o fhte body to maintain a stable internal state in spite of the demands of the environment o Constant monitoring of body processes/internal states and response to changes (like thermostat) • The nervous system: o Neurons= nerve cells (how the body communicates b/w self thru electrical impulses along these)  Afferent neurons= conduct impulses from sense organ to central NS, or from hlower to higher levels in spinal cord and brain  Efferent neurons= take impulses away from brain  Afferent and efferent neurons communicate w/each other via neurotransmitters that travel across gap b/w them (synapse)  Synaptic transmission affected by psycholiglca state and affects psychological experience (reciprocal) • Ie multiple sclerosis where nerve cells lose outer layering (myelin sheath) and myasthenia gravis (can be caused by inability to produce certain NTs - Central nervous system= composed of brain and spinal cord -vs peripheral NS= Somatic and Autonomic NS (this is further into sympathetic and parasympathetic) - glial cells= make up about 90% of CNS cells and are support system for neurons (provide nourishment and help neurons maintain proper physical orientation to each other) - CNS also protected by bone fluids and membranes -Blood brain barrier= sentinel for materials that enter brain via bloodstream -Meningitis= infection of fluid that protects brain and spinal cord (CNS) -3 meninges membranes for further protection b/w bone layer and nerve tissue -viral or bacterial meningitis (bacterial worse) -high fever, stiff neck, migraine -in babies, irritable or inactive, vomiting or poor feeding -The Brain: -brain stem= at base of brain that connects brain to spinal cord, controls very basic functions (sleep-wake cycles, breathing) and maintaining posture/balance -Cerebellum= “little brain”, above brainstem, contributes to ctrl of balance and coordination of voluntary movement -hypothalamus= portion of brain that initiates stress response in both NS and endocrine system -central control for homeostasis -combines w/pituitary gland to be important communication point b/w neural and hormonal systems -Thalamus= above hypothalamus, manages synaptic input to brain and sends impulses to appropriate part of brain -cerebral cortex= caps internal structures of brain and is divided into hemispheres, or sides, and is separated into 4 functional areas called lobes -Cortex=surface, highly folded to increase surface area and allow for many neurons and more cerebral activity -Occipital lobes= contain visual cortex, interpret impulses that come in thru the light sensitive receptors (rod and cones) in eyes -Temporal lobes= responsible for interpreting sound (either side of head in ear vicinity) -Parietal lobes= responsible for processing sensory info other than hearing and vision (ie touch and temp regulation) -top back of head -Frontal lobes= responsible for voluntary movement, language, thought processing and emotion -parietal and frontal lobes separated by deep channel called Cnetral Sulcus -Motor cortex= responsible for controlling voluntary movement such as facial, limb, trunk and hand movement -ridge of tissue running across top of head (from ear to ear) in front of central sulcus -lower part of cortex near temporal lobes responsible for facial movement, upper portion of fortex at top of head responsible for limb/trunk movement -hands controlled by large area in middle of motor strip -sensory cortex= responsible for sensory activities in specific parts of the body as well as for sensations from the skin, muscles and joints - each hemisphere of motor strip controls opposite side of body (contralateral control) - Broca’s area of brain= controls speech production -in front of the base of the motor strip -Wernicke’s area of brain= controls speech comprehension (understanding and interpretation of language) -at junction of occipital, parietal and temporal lobes -Cerebrovascular accidents (strokes)= form of cardiovascular disease in which blood flow to brain is disrupted -blockage causing stroke= Ischemic stroke -hemorrhagic stroke= caused by blood vessel rupture -paraplegia= loss of leg movement, Quadriplegia= loss of all limb movement -Peripheral nervous system -sensory afferents= carry sensory info to brain via spinal cord (info on temp, pressure, pain from skin or body position/balance from muscles/joins/skin/inner ear -may also carry info RE vision, taste, hearing, and smell directly to brain w/o engaging spinal cord -affected by psychological states -somatic nervous system= responsible for voluntary activity and ctrls skeletal muscles -Autonomic NS= responsible for involuntary activity and ctrls cardiac muscle of heart, smoother muscle of internal organs and most glands -very important for homeostasis -Sympathetic NS= responsible for “fight or flight” when triggered by hypothalamus - Parasympathetic NS= re-establishes homeostasis and promotes reconstructive processes following stress - sympathetic and parasympathetic work against each other (antagonistic) -The endocrine system= consists of collection of glands throughout body (from brain to genitals) -secrete hormones which travel thru blood stream to target to regulate functions -effects of longer duration than NS, also helps ctrl developmental phenomena such as growth and metabolism -Main ctrl center in brain- hypothalamus, pituitary gland (produces hormones to stimulate other glands (not organs) ie the heart -hormones produced to stimulate other glands= Tropic hormones -ie Adrenocortotropic hormone (ACTH) which is produced by anterior lobe of pituitary gland and stimulates adrenal gland to produce cortisol -thyroid gland produces hormones that help regulate growth and immune function -adrenal gland produces cortisol (and other hormones) which provides enrgy by helping body convert stored proteins and fats into glucose -pituitary gland produces 8 hormones, can be multiple target sights -Diabetes= common disease that results from a malfunction in the endocrine system. Caused by hyposecretion (too little) of insulin (from pancreas) -insulin to aid body’s ability to convert blood sugar to energy, glucagon raises blood sugar • The Immune system= monitors invasion of micro-organisms in the body and prevent their spread and growth by eliminating them o Micro-organisms (relevant) being bacteria, viruses, parasites and fungi (all called Antigens) o If antigens have capacity to create disease are then called Pathogens o Immune system= guard against infection and growth of cells associated w/disease  First line of defense= skin and mucous (most antigens stopped here)  Second line is internal components of immune system taht create cells designed to attack antigens and eliminate infected cells  Specific immunity= protection against particular antigen • Acquired immunity= protection against antigen as result of prior exposure to antigen (either by having contracted disease or thru inoculation that presents body w/non-toxic dose of antigen)  Immune system memory= ability of certain immune system cells to adapt to an antigen to remember the antigen when it’s encountered again and to work to eliminate it • Not only will immune cells remember it, will attack more explosively this time too  B Lymphocytes= cells that, when re-encountering a specific pathogen produce an antibody designed to eliminate the pathogen • These for acquired immunity o Specific type= Memory B cells= particular type of B lymphocyte that develops a “memory” for a specific antigen after being exposed to it and acts on only that antigen by producing antibodies andimmunoglobulins  Production of these antibodies is sometimes called Seroconversion • B lymphocytes need help to produce antibodies which comes from T lymphocytes called helper T cells which produce Interleukins (speed division of B lymphocyte cells) • Suppressor T cells= cells that stop the production of antibodies after the antigen has been destroyed o Mostly immune system generate antibodies faster than antigen can multiply o Body can’t keep enough antibody for everything so keeps a little bit of everything and relies on B lymphocytes to generate enough when necessary  Specificity= ability of certain immune system cells to remember an antigen and respond only to the remembered antigen • So B lymphocyte won’t just remember antigen but will respond to this antigen ONLY  Tolerance= ability of immune system cells to remember and respond to a remembered antigen while not reacting to the body’s own cells • Dif from specific immunity in that relies on system that we are born with • Many processes: 1 where create chemicals (antimicrobial substances) that kill antigens (see inflammation) o Inflammation indication taht immune system doing it’s job  Lymphocytes important components of NS, include B cells, T cells, Natural-killer (NK) cells which have specific job of “seeking and destroying” cells that are infected, cancerous, or altered in some other way  Immune system can turn against itself to create allergies (mistake harmless antigen for pathogen)  Autoimmune disease= occur when immune system works against body’s own cells. One best known is Arthritis • The circulatory system: o Stimulated/innervated by nervous system o Consists of heart, blood vessels and blood= essential for life o Blood circulates in 2 separate and critical loops  One closed loop b/w heart and lungs w/replenishment of oxygen  Other loop links heart to other body systems and returns oxygen depleted blood called Systemic circulation • Veins bring blood back to heart, arteries take it away (oxygenated) o The heart:  Hollow muscular pump about size of fist in middle of chest (not on left), divided into 2 halves by Septum (right half receives and pumps blood low in oxygen and left deals w/oxygen rich blood) • Each half w/upper and lower chambers (upper= atria, lower=ventricles) • Atria receive blood returning to heart and transfer it to ventricles, which then pump the blood from the heart to either the lungs (pulmonary circulation) or other parts of the body (systemic circulation) • Right side atrium receives blood from systemic circulation (low in oxygen, high in carbon dioxide) o Blood flows to right ventricle where then pumped to lungs via pulmonary artery o In lungs blood loses carbon dioxide and picks up oxygen then goes back to left atrium via pulmonary veins  Then to left ventricl
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