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Chapter 1

Personality - Ch. 1 Scientific Study of Personality.pdf

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 370
Professor
Robert Ley
Semester
Winter

Description
Ch1. the Scientific Study of Personality January-09-13 2:37 PM I. Five Points to Keep in Mind • Personality theories fall under paradigms that represent what is emphasized in the theories • Experiments in the field are experimental, controlled, quantified • There are 4 types of personality data • Clinical method is the founding data on personality • Recognize importance of situations/context to understand [personality of] the individual (people behave , feel, think differently in different situation) II. Personality and the Nature of Human nature • Personality is hard to define • Concerned with motive, feelings, thinking action; etc. • Studying this allows us to predict, understand, [exercise a sense of]control human behaviour A. Paradigms in Personality  Paradigm: a pattern/example shown side by side with an object/instance for comparison  This book look at seven paradigms of personality, most of which originate from psychoanalysis (Freud) B. Observing People and Asking Questions: looking at those with difficulties can help us understand "normal" people too. (i.e., looking at extreme examples will help us better understand) III. Personality Theory in Psychology and Personality Theory as Science A. Assumptions of Science  Determinism: all events in nature act in lawful ways □ Is human behaviour lawful? (human are biologically lawful --> that's why medicine works, but what about psychologically?) □ If behaviour is lawful, it contradicts free will (that we are free to choose how we act) □ Psychic energy: (Freud) the energy behind thoughts, feelings, actions  Discoverability: that in principle, the laws governing us can be potentially discovered  Scientific method: a way of discovering the laws that govern us  Potential human benefit: that despite the risks that may come (ethics), it is generally better to explore & keep an open mind B. Method of Science  Willingness to test ideas (being very ethical about studies; don't make stuff up like Burt did with his twin studies)  Putting ideas into questions (how > why b/c it explains the process as well)  Operationism (how we define ideas; tricky b/c psychological aspects aren't concrete/tangent)  Observation (of what you're studying as well as relevant events [accidents])  Careful description (most agree we need a scientific based language for precision, others feel subjectivity > objectivity)  Logical inference □ Induction (observation of experience) x deduction (logical derivation of strict rules) □ External validity: want to generalize into other samples, into all □ External validity: want to generalize into other samples, into all people □ Logical analysis: think of how ideas relate to observable things C. Higher-Order Ingredients  Experiment □ Manipulate variables through more vigorous procedures to come to more certain conclusion □ Control: hold constant other/confounding variables to see what experimental variables does (isolate)  Quantification: quantifying data and mathematically analyzing them for greater precision (check probability that it's chance) IV. Research Methods in Personality A. Personality's Data Data Advantages Limitations S-data -Simple, good for 1-on-1 -Will they answer (Self report) -can use surveys for larger -Honestly? sample O-data -Ask other sources (teacher, -Observer may be biased (ask (observer) friend) more sources to overcome) -Overcome expectancy effect
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