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Chapter 3

Personality - Ch3. Psychoanalysis Sigmund Freud.pdf

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 370
Professor
Robert Ley

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Ch3. Psychoanalysis: Sigmund Freud January-19-13 7:34 PM I. Emphases A. Traumatic Events and the Symptomsof Neurosis ○ conflict between disturbances (id vs. ego) that originate in childhood (less emphasis on sexuality) --> too intense = neurosis ○ Symptomsof neurosis were seen as expression of desires/fantasies; it is a sort of [costly] relief from inner conflict B. Instincts, the Unconscious and Defences ○ Internal struggle between wishes for instinctual satisfaction (id) vs. imperative reality/ moral teaching ○ Ego keeps id in the unconscious mind via defence mechanisms, but id still slips through the cracks into the conscious mind C. Three Parts of Psychology ○ Id: the motivational part, the instincts that demands immediate gratification, ○ Ego: deals with external reality and controls id ○ Superego: the moral agency ○ Internal state influences how one behaves in events of external world D. Personality Development ○ Children are driven towards seuxalized urge for pleasurable stimulation; areas are mouth, anus, genitals --> their functions are socialized --> improper socialization can be damaging psychologically ○ Stages are sequential (can’t be omitted) E. The Broad Sweep of Psychoanalysis ○ Doesn’t only focus on disturbances/disorders, but seeks to explain human behaviours in daily lives (the whole canvas) II. The Major Concepts of Psychoanalysis • Gives a good account for disorders of sex and aggression (e.g., sadism) A. The Structures of Personality 1. Id: “the it”  das Es - grammatically neutral form of “child”, refers to what all children knows  Utterly intolerant of frustration, desires immediate satisfaction  Pleasure principle: pursuing pleasure and avoiding pain; includes reflex action (e.g., sneezing, that discharge discomfortsautomatically) & primary process (discharge discomfort via hallucination of object that will satisfy craving; e.g., mother’s breast for hunger --> wish fulfillment) □ adults may experienceprimary process unconsciouslyvia dreams  Instincts: source (state of need, ex. nutrition), aim (removal of tension), object (environment/person who can reduce excitation & things that need to take place before satisfaction [looking for food]), impetus (strength of instinct)  Repetition compulsion: instinctual life is cyclical;perseverative repetition of inadequate/unsuccessful attempt to gratify instinct  Libido: the motors of life instinct, to survive/ preserve (hunger, sex)  vs. death instinct (destructive to self/others); wish to die is unconscious, so it may be displaced to others (displacement)  Implies that motives are rooted and people can only enjoy, ignore or adapt to them 2. Ego: “I”, das Ich 2. Ego: “I”, das Ich  Inhibits the wishes of id that cannot be immediately satisfied,powered by the urges of id; stems of me-others differentiation  Reality principle: conforms to social norms; remembers & anticipates punishment  Secondary process: invokes realistic/appropriatemeans of satisfying wishes  Reality anxiety: fear of realisticdanger in environment, prototype of anxiety  Neurotic anxiety: fear of id breaking through to conscious awareness (cathexis) --> ego uses defence mechanism/ anti-cathexis (unconscious; distorts reality)  Moral anxiety: has more to do with superego 3. Defense Mechanisms  Repression: altering/ falsifying/ blocking reality, like censoring an offensive passage by crossing it out or replacing it with a differentpassage  Reaction formation: transform intolerable feelings into their opposite (e.g., sexual attraction becomes repulsion) □ Can be learned from punishment, like when parents make siblings who fight hold hands, with parental love at stake for punishment  Projection: attribute intolerable feelings/ wishes to others (e.g., thinking others are hostile when you’re hostile)  Fixation/Regression: traumatized from threat, and returns to a previous developmental level, which may be manifested in fixations that represent that stage (e.g., wetting pants when going to school) □ fixation as result of frustration/anxiety  Undoing: neutralize intolerable feelings, or follow it up with another feeling that negates the first (like it never happened) □ e.g, “I meant this. I couldn’t have meant that b/c I don’t think that.”  Narcissism: inward investment of libidinal energy, preoccupation with the self; may occur when there lack external objects cathexes 4. Superego: uber-Ich (above-I) the voice of society, of our conscience, of our ideal self (ego ideal, as modeled after parent of same-sex)  Manifested as internalized behavioral control, behaving decently and resisting temptation  Not conscious, not always fair/reasonable, a sort of tyrant  Experience moral anxiety or guilt when we go against it B. The Stages of Personality Development ○ Erogenous zones: derives sexualized pleasure when stimulated ○ Psychosexual stages: the pleasure makes it so they’re likelyreproduce/preserve species 1. Oral Stage: (0-12m/o)  Linked with need for food;  0-6m/o: incorporative period: passively receiving [liquid] food, pleasure just from sucking (thus pacifiers)  Fixation @ incorporative period: dependency, gullibility, passivity  (teething): oral sadistic/biting: more active role as infant eat solid food with teeth; pleasure from biting, rejecting food  Fixation @ oral sadistic: mouth as instrument of aggression, using/exploiting ppl, verbal abuse 2. Anal Stage:  Anal expulsion & anal retention (newly matured ability to control feces)  B/c it is socialized globally, it introduces social norms/ regulation --> forces children to surrender instinctual source of pleasure  Fixation @ anal expulsion: stubborn, power struggle  Fixation @ anal retention: miserly, obstinate, unable to love, strong interesting amassing possessionvs. cruelty, wanton destructiveness, temper tantrums, amassing possessionvs. cruelty, wanton destructiveness, temper tantrums, disorderliness 3. Phallic Stage: @3y/o  In Males: centered around genital region; begin to engage in autoerotic behaviour (manipulation of genital to drive distinct signs of pleasure) □ Oedipus complex: sexual longing for mother, childish wish, well imagined □ Resolve it by (1) renounce incestuous wishes & (2) identifying with father as ego ideal/ moral model (identifies with aggressor --> infantile sexuality is repressed) □ --> identification: explains why children resemble parent, affiliationwith gender norms (sociallylinked, not biologicallylink) □ Repressive teachings --> overbearing/tyrannical superego that inhibits appropriate sexual urges; indulgent teachings --> weak superego, lack guilt  In Females: penis envy, castration is a fact rather than a threat, angry/disappointed when comparing self to father/male siblings, blames mother for lack of □ Resolve by re-establishing cathexis with mother and give up yearning for father (less intense than in male, more gradual) □ Freud acknowledge that psychoanalysisfor females is underdeveloped, and doesn't explain enough 4. Latency Period and Genital Stage  Latency: in boys, sexual instincts are repressed/latent (maybe even disinterest [stemming from anxiety of castration]) (pre-puberty)  Genital stage: incorporates cathexes from preceding stages ○ Freud believed that after development of superego (~5-6y/o),child can be considered a small grownup, if change occurs it'll be subtle C. Adult Character Structure 1. By libidinal origin of behaviours: indulgence in smoking/alcohol:oral incorporative fixation (dependency), anal fixation (stubbornness, surround self with possessions,
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