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PSYC 370 Chapter Notes -Heinz Hartmann, Anna Freud, Erik Erikson

Course Code
PSYC 370
Robert Ley

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Saw ego as responsible for many things (executive of personality, defence mechanism) but is
dependent on id for energy
While psychoanalysis changed over time, Freud refused to waver on the role of the ego fight
with Adler/Jung
Ego psychologist disagreed, starting with Anna Freud
6th & youngest of Freud's children (born 1895). Very special to Freud ("most gifted and
Later, rule that "do not analyze those close to you" b/c of complications with
Trained to be a teacher, then trained by Freud to be lay analyst (no M.D.)
After Freud got jaw cancer, Anna became indispensable (secretary, nurse, professional colleague)
became well known in psychoanalyst circle
Specialized in treatment of children (child development & childrearing)
Expanded importance of ego & ego mastery
Approach to personal growth (beyond just instinctual socialization)
Developmental lines: plots the sequence of children's growth from dependence/self absorption to
more mature/independence
Anna Freud
Born in Vienna, invited by Freud to analyze with him
Fled to 1938 to New York
Not like he refuted Freud's idea more like he added more roles to ego
Redefined ego in his book "Ego Psychology & Problems of Adaption"
Hartmann: id/ego are differentiated there isn't one without/before the other thus gives
ego more autonomy
Ego still takes care of conflicts with id, but can also grow outside of conflict
Freud believed id & ego starts together but aren't differentiated
Heinz Hartmann
Erik Erikson
Born out of extra-marital liason; didn't know until adolescence
Grow up as Jewish child (stepfather's religion)
Got a high school diploma, and was fed up with school Art school: sketched, struggled with
Invited to teach in school, exposed to world of children
Invited to train under Anna Freud in psychoanalysis
Left for USA with American wife @ time of Nazi influence, to become a child analyst
Within decade, appointed to positions @ Harvard, Yale, University of California
Resigned in 1950 from U of California b/c of anti-communism campaign at the school moved
back to Massachusetts to work with troubled teens and issue of identity
Check out his books (p.134)
(A) Personal History
Was influenced by his art background
(1) Ego and Ego Development
(B) Emphasis
Ch5. Ego Psychology (Anna Freud, Heinz Hartmann, Erik Erikson)
7:46 PM
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Saw ego as rooted in social organization (continues to shape ego over lifespan)
We never got rid of childhood conflicts but societies offers promise of security/identity
Psychosocial crisis: psychosocially and socially based
(1) Ego and Ego Development
Epigenesis: describes emergence of embryonic organism from unorganized, undifferentiated
How the organism continues to unfold through development
Each psychosocial stage has its own challenges for ego to struggle with
(2) Epigenetic Development
Remember, (Freud) psychosexuality had erogenous zones and a certain mode of expression
(3) Zones, Modes, Modalities
e.g., in oral phase: incorporative is dominant, but movement of jaw (incorporative #2),
spitting food (elimination), close lips (retention), mother's nipple (oral-intrusive)
How mother/society copes with each stage influences social responsiveness
Modalities: the way societies/cultures deal with zone mode features psychosexual stages
Adolescence: identity (who they are, beliefs, values commitment to society)
Incorporative Take in nourishment & sensation
Incorporative Active, biting, teething (Oral)
Elimination Letting go
Retention Ability to hold in
Intrusive Exploring, moving (explore others), active locomotion
See how each stage challenges ego ego development/coping
The order matters, but vary in time and between individuals
Virtue: hope
Elemental comfort/security provided by mother; or uncertainty/anxiety over mother's
unpredictable nature, unrelieved discomfort
Sense that things are all right and inner goodness
Determined by quality of maternal care, not quantity (responsiveness vs. time)
Trust: endure deprivation (temp separation) hope (believe attainment of wish is
Mistrust: no one to depend on , wish fulfillment threatened
Trust vs. Mistrust
Eight Ages of Man
(C) Major Concepts of Erikson's Ego Psychology
Virtue: will (self determination, understanding that one makes choice)
Increased muscle ability & toilet training (socialized to accept rituals of elimination)
power struggle
Become unsure of abilities/independence
A wilful victory (child wins) shame/doubt bb/c parents will damage self-esteem
A time of testing limits (ex. bedtime). Key is to set firm/reasonable limits so child
becomes proud to control self
Autonomy vs. Shame/Doubt
Virtue: purpose
M: phallic intrusiveness (potentially more muscular vigorous life)
F: inception (softer, less aggressive way of related (
motherhood); perceptive &
Initiative vs. guilt
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