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Personality - Ch5 Ego Psychology.pdf

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PSYC 370
Robert Ley

Ch5. Ego Psychology (Anna Freud, Heinz Hartmann, Erik Erikson) February-24-13 7:46 PM Introduction • Whilepsychoanalysischanged over time, Freud refused to waver on the role of the ego → fight with Adler/Jung ○ Saw ego as responsible for many things (executiveof personality, defence mechanism)but is dependent on id for energy • Ego psychologist disagreed, starting with Anna Freud Anna Freud • 6th & youngest of Freud's children(born 1895). Very special to Freud ("most gifted and accomplished") • Trained to be a teacher, then trained by Freud to be lay analyst (no M.D.) ○ Later, rule that "do not analyzethose close to you" b/c of complications with counter/transference • After Freud got jaw cancer, Anna became indispensable(secretary, nurse, professional colleague) → became well known in psychoanalyst circle • Specializedin treatment of children (child development& childrearing) • Expanded importance of ego & ego mastery • Developmental lines:plots the sequence of children's growth from dependence/selfabsorption to more mature/independence ○ Approach to personal growth (beyond just instinctual socialization) HeinzHartmann • Born inVienna, invitedby Freud to analyzewith him • Fled to 1938 to NewYork • Redefinedego in his book "Ego Psychology& Problemsof Adaption" ○ Not likehe refuted Freud's ideamore likehe added more roles to ego • Freud believedid & ego starts together but aren't differentiated ○ Hartmann: id/egoare differentiated → there isn't one without/before the other thus gives ego more autonomy ○ Ego still takes care of conflicts with id, but can also growoutside of conflict Erik Erikson (A) Personal History • Born out of extra-marital liason; didn't know until adolescence • Grow up as Jewishchild (stepfather's religion) • Got a high school diploma, and was fed up with school → Art school: sketched, struggledwith alienation • Invitedto teach in school, exposed to world of children • Invitedto train under Anna Freud in psychoanalysis • Left for USA with [email protected] timeof Nazi influence, to become a child analyst • Within decade, appointed to positions @ Harvard, Yale, Universityof California • Resignedin 1950 from U of Californiab/c of anti-communism campaign at the school → moved back to Massachusetts to work with troubled teens and issue of identity • Check out his books (p.134) (B) Emphasis • Was influenced by his art background • (1) Ego and Ego Development • (1) Ego and Ego Development ○ Saw ego as rooted in social organization (continues to shape egoover lifespan) ○ We never got rid of childhood conflicts but societiesoffers promiseof security/identity ○ Psychosocial crisis: psychosociallyand sociallybased • (2) Epigenetic Development ○ Epigenesis:describes emergenceof embryonic organism from unorganized, undifferentiated protoplasm ○ How the organism continues to unfold through development ○ Each psychosocial stage has its own challengesfor ego to struggle with • (3) Zones, Modes, Modalities ○ Remember,(Freud) psychosexualityhad erogenouszones and a certain mode of expression Incorporative Take in nourishment & sensation Incorporative Active, biting, teething (Oral) Elimination Letting go Retention Abilityto hold in Intrusive Exploring, moving (exploreothers), active locomotion ○ e.g.,in oral phase: incorporative is dominant, but movement of jaw (incorporative #2), spitting food (elimination),close lips (retention), mother's nipple(oral-intrusive) ○ Modalities: the way societies/cultures deal with zone mode features psychosexual stages  How mother/society copes with each stage influences social responsiveness ○ Adolescence: identity (who they are, beliefs, valuescommitment to society) (C) Major Concepts of Erikson's Ego Psychology • Eight Agesof Man ○ See how each stage challengesego → ego development/coping ○ The order matters, but varyin time and between individuals ○ Trust vs. Mistrust  Virtue: hope  Elemental comfort/security provided by mother; or uncertainty/anxiety over mother's unpredictable nature, unrelieveddiscomfort  Sense that things are all right and inner goodness  Determined by qualityof maternal care, not quantity (responsivenessvs. time)  Trust: endure deprivation (temp separation) → hope (believeattainment of wish is possible)  Mistrust: no one to depend on , wishfulfillmentthreatened ○ Autonomyvs. Shame/Doubt  Virtue: will (self determination, understanding that one makes choice)  Increased muscle ability& toilet training (socializedto accept rituals of elimination)→ power struggle  A wilful victory (child wins)→ shame/doubt bb/c parents will damageself-esteem □ Become unsure of abilities/independence  A time of testing limits(ex. bedtime). Key is to set firm/reasonablelimitsso child becomes proud to control self ○ Initiative vs. guilt  Virtue: purpose  M: phallicintrusiveness(potentially more muscularvigorous life)  F: inception (softer, lessaggressivewayof related (→ motherhood); perceptive&  F: inception (softer, lessaggressivewayof related (→ motherhood); perceptive& acceptance  Cometo term with urges (M: marrymom and makeher proud; F: marry/take care of dad) □ Parents : gentle, reassuring,decisive; rewarding initiative,pride in self, sense of purpose  Guilt if parent is too overbearing,condemning, ridiculing→ aggressiontowards parents  Playage: trying on different roles and imitationof adults ○ Industry vs. inferiority  Virtue: competence  Period of instruction in knowledge(acquire skill/learn) □ Require effort, followingformalitiesof learning, cooperation  Inferiority:lose faith in ability, lose status among peers  Parents can help by preparing child for school and not givingup on them ○ Identity vs. Identity confusion  Virtue: fidelity(readiness to be faithful to commitment, ideals,values, people) (from group identity) □ Identity achievement  Transition into adulthood, rapid physical growth, sexual maturity (intimacy)  Ego identity: decisionsabout who one is, what one will become □ Commitmentto occupation, intimacy, beliefsystem (religion,politics) 
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