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Personality Ch6. Neo-Freudians.pdf

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Simon Fraser University
PSYC 370
Robert Ley

Ch6. Neo-Freudians March-02-13 8:38 PM Introduction • Successors extended on ego in waythat’s kind of consistent with Freud • Adler, likeJung, didn't agree with Freud entirely ○ Thought Freud had too much emphasis on sexuality, not enough on parent-child relationships, importance on parent/social ○ Because Freud was influencedby the boom in medicine --> focus on physical cause • Rejected sex as primedriveand instinctual lifeas main source of personality • Freud: ego gets energyfrom id ○ Neo: id cannot haveto do with everything ○ Hartmann: instinct ego satisfaction (not id driven)(activitiesare carried out for its own sake) • Freud was very pessimistic ○ Adler: room for growth of healthy ego AlfredAdler's Personal History • Well off family, 2nd of 6 children • Sickly(rickets kept him indoor/inactive) ○ Older brother was perfect exampleof a healthy child • Almostdied at 5 y/o from pneumonia, sensed his own mortality --> when healed, decided to become a doctor • Did poorly in school but went on to study medicine • Defended Freud's dream book --> Freud invitedhim to WednesdayPsychological Society ○ Forced out when he presented ideas/papers that disagreedwith core Freud ideas (Oedipal complex, sexual motives, etc.) • Adlerfelt he was livingin Freud's shadow (paralleledhis relationshipwith his older brother of the same name) ○ Found Freud to be a typical pamperedchild (who isused to having his way) • After WWI, worked /fond child guidance clinic for treatment/prevention of psychological problems inchildren • Became protestant b/c he felt Jewishfaith was not as inclusive--> still moved to USA to avoid Nazi • Died of a heart attack • Was charming & witty; was optimisticabout human nature, sometimesblunt/direct Emphasis • Practicality ○ When dealing with those with psychological difficulty, one needs common sense and courage  Signs of healthy ego development ○ Focus on teachings that improvesocial relationshipand P's own life  Gave riseto "lifestyle"and "inferioritycomplex" • Conscious Ego ○ That thoughts/feelings/behaviourstems from ego/conscious processes ○ Not from ego's unconscious activitiesor hidden desires ○ Drasticallydifferent from Freud • Individualin society ○ Emphases P & society ○ Social interest: inborn, peopleare social Inferiority: from individual helplessness,dependence ○ Inferiority: from individual helplessness,dependence  Compensate for inferiorityto overcome it • IndividualUniqueness ○ Style of life: unique lifeapproaches of all people; basis of personality --> emphasizes individualdifferences • Pursuing Future Goal ○ Fictional finalism: people pursue goals, which determinesbehaviour  Behaviour iscaused, but directed at the future  "Fictional" b/c goals aren't always realistic • Familyas social group ○ Effects of childrearing,birth order, parents' behaviour • How personalityis expressed ○ In reaction to inferiority, goal pursuing, earlymemories,dreams, etc. Major concepts of individualpsychology • Organ Inferiority ○ Such as frequent illness,chronic condition/distress --> body compensates for this weakness  Why not psychologically? ○ Neurosisas b/c of weak/dysfunctionin body, such as in erogenous zone --> preoccupation ○ Ex. Human babies are weak/dependent • Feelingsof Inferiority ○ The driveto overcome incompleteness ○ Aim for perfection is lifelong--> inferiorityisn't abnormal b/c it's likestriving to be better ○ Driven by (1) body  Ex. Active child compensates differentlythan smart child  Depends on lifecircumstances (ex. Medical illness& associated feelings) ○ Driven by (2) childhood experiences  Family,familyinfluences ○ The true cure to inferiorityare cooperation, courage, hope  Neurotic goals (impossibleto attain) --> inferiority complex • Superiority Striving ○ Overcompensate feelingsof helplessnessby expressions of masculine protest  Men > women--> "masculine" = ideal  e.g.,rebellious,defiance, extremesubmission, failing to try ○ This striving is innate to overcome strugglesin life, for perfection, for better adaptation  ≠ to be better than others (b/c that would be a neurotic goal) • Style of Life ○ A particular/individualform of expression, stemming from striving to overcome, as influenced by physical/intellectualmakeup & childhood experience ○ Uniqueway of pursing goal ○ Set by ~4-5 y/o (influenced by Freud to put age cap on personality development) ○ Depends on the meaning P givesto life --> not easy to put in words, expressed vaguelyin actions/goals, even P doesn't know it • Fictional Finalism ○ Peopleinvent their own reality(depends on the meaning you giveexperiences) ○ Strive towards goals we'veset for ourselves (attaining superiority)  e.g.,get married, raise children ○ Fictional b/c it isn't practical. We can't all be the alpha male. It's not a good plan to be social  F: can't just succumb and be super inferior e.g.,believingin afterlife--> living"as if" there's an afterlife ○ e.g.,believingin afterlife--> living"as if" there's an afterlife
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