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Ch9. trait theories.pdf

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Psychology
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PSYC 370
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Robert Ley

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Ch9. Trait Theory (Allport, Cattell, Eysenck, big 5) March-20-13 3:00 PM Introduction • Traces back to Athenian philosophers who noticed differences incharacters in people • Peoplecan have a trait, but he can't have a type. They fit a type. ○ Personalitytypes  e.g.,Jung's eight categories  Peoplecan fit into them (introvert vs. extraverted) ○ Vs. personalitytraits  More spectrum like;less dichotic • Allportwent through the dictionary to find personality traits ○ Lexical hypothesis -- folk wisdom tells us what we could want to know about personality • Traits have intuitive appeal ○ Explanations tend to be circular (A is optimistic, b/c they're happy. A ishappy b/c they're an optimistic) ○ Need to discoverthe antecedents I. Trait Theory of Gordon Allport (A) Allport:Personal History • Grew up in small town, characterized by "protestant piety and hard work" • Father was physician, home was used for medical practice → had to help out viacleaning, tending to office/patients • Youngest of 4 boys; older brother Floyd became psychologist (influencedhim to apply to harvard) • Graduated in economic/philosophy,dabbled in psychology • Wrote to Freud to meetup → found that Freud was so accustomed to neurotic defences & misunderstood Allport's attempt to break the ice ○ Felt that psychoanalysis delvedtoo deeplyinto unconscious and misses the immediate motivations • One of the first to writea dissertation on personality → learnednot to care about rebukes/professional slights • Taught at Harvard, Dartmouth, • Became president of APA in 1939, as well as other rewards (B) Allport: Personalityand the Trait • Recognisescross-situation consistency and individual variabilityin expressionof traits ○ Histheories leavesroom for variabilityin expression of traits • 1. Realityof Personality ○ Definition: Personalityis the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems determineone's unique adjustment to the world ○ Personalityis who a person reallyis • 2. Idiographicand Nomothetic Approaches ○ Idiographicapproach: system of patterned uniqueness  Allportliked that one. But didn't think the 2 conflict (can study both) ○ Nomothetic approach: the general laws that apply to all ○ Allport's studies tend to be nomothetic but acknowledgethat it oversimplifiesif applied to individuals • 3. Real people, real traits • 3. Real people, real traits ○ Traits are real, withinP, determinesbehaviours/thoughts ○ Traits: cause P to treat stimuli of different situations as equivalent/alike,and act as ifthey were  Frequency: Sherlock is frequentlymean.  Range: Sherlock is nice to John.  Intensity: Sherlock is very egocentric. ○ Habit (brush teeth) vs. trait (personal cleanliness) • 4. types of traits ○ Commontraits: character of people (consistency across people/situations) ○ Individualtraits/personal disposition: attributes of individuals  Cardinal disposition: determinesbehaviours in different situations □ Have~5-10 per person □ ex. hypochondria , preoccupation with exceptional mental state, marked oscillationof mood, sensibility,vivacity,humanity, sociability  Secondary disposition: minorindividual traits (ex. preferences) □ Not linked to general consistency of behaviours ○ Behaviours= f( person, environment) C. Allport in Perspective • Greatly influencedCartell • Taught in Harvard, Hawaii • Developed personalitytests that also study submission, value, religionorientation III. RaymondCartell & Factory-Analytic Trait Theory (A) Introduction • 1. Factor Analysis ○ Discovery a systematic order in set of correlation ○ Correction (r): relationship between 2 arrays (ex. IQ, personalityscores, etc.)  +1.0 perfect positive, 0 no relationship  r : how much variance in one array is accounted for in the other array ○ Factor: commonalitiesextracted from reduced #'s of correlations ○ Factor loadings: whether correlations will be substanntial ○ 2 common factor-analytic procedures  Produces factors unrelated to each other; the easierprocedure; makes"right angles with axes"  Makes oblique axes; more realistic;determine each individual scores on each → surface traits □ 16 basic traits of personality • 2. types of data ○ L-data: information taken from liferecords ○ Q-data: responses to [personality]questionnaire ○ T-data: "objective" tests that may have hidden aim so P can't shape answers  ex. Minnesota Multiphasic PersonalityInventory (MMPI), Inkblot ○ R-technique: measurepeople on manyvariablesand factor analyzewith trait definition(or other methods) ○ P-technique: moreidiosyncratic, ex. measure trait data through diary over period of time on one P (B) Cartell:Personal History • Father was mechanical engineer;happy childhood until WW1, was exposed to wounded soldiers → sense of urgency to accomplish many things • At 16 y/o, studied chemistrymajor at U of London (graduated at 19 y/o with first class honours) • At 16 y/o, studied chemistrymajor at U of London (graduated at 19 y/o with first class honours) • Taught at various institution (Columbia,Clark, Harvard), civil consultant during WW2, (Illinois, Hawaii) • Nominated for AmericanPsychological Foundation Gold Medal Award for lifetimeachievement ○ Scandal when people called his research on {black vs. white IQ} racist (C) Cartell:Emphasis/Major Concepts • 1. surface traits & source traits ○ Surfacetraits: observations that go together/correlated  ex. honest people tend to also be self-controlled, self-denying,loyal, fair-minded, reliable ○ Source traits: only discoverablethrough factor analysisof trait-likedata  16 source traits, the "real stuff of identity", "first order" traits  Conditionaltrait: from internal conditions  Environmental-mould traits: from environmental conditions • 2. modalitiesof source traits ○ Modalitiesnot exclusive. May have more than one ○ Ability traits: determineshow well we do things  e.g.,intelligence:fluid(problem solving)vs. crystalized (general factor, based on past application of fluid intelligence,schooling)  Culture-fair:created a test that doesn't rely on languageto reveal fluid intelligence ○ Temperament traits: based on emotionality  ex. full of energy,emotionallyresponsible, devoid of emotion ○ Dynamic traits: made up of attitude, sentiment, erg  Attitude: surface traits, disposition ot respond □ Based on sentiment  Sentiment: environment-mouldsource trait □ Acquired □ CausesP to pay attention to certain objects and feel certain way about it □ e.g.,self: the "master sentiment" □ Based on erg  Erg: constitutional source trait □ Motivation/drivethat are innate □ DeterminesP's perception, emotional response, instrumental behaviours to achieve, satisfaction that follows □ e.g.,curiosity, sex, gregariousness,protection, self assertion, security, hunger anger, disgust, appeal, self-submission,self-indulgence  All related through dynamic network  Metaergs: e.g., money(dynamic, environment-mouldtrait) • 3. specification equation ○ Turn personalityscheme into predictivetask ○ R = s 1 1 s 2 2 + 3 3 s T n n ○ R: response to be predicted ○ s: strength of trait (+/-) ○ T: trait ○ Person-situation interaction: include traits of person/situational characteristics • 4. personality development ○ Cross agemeasurement personalityfactors  @8-12y/o, @16y/o, using 16PF test  e.g.,acceptance of authority tends to decrease, replaced by autonomy ○ Multipleabstract varianceanalysis(MAVA): used to study heritable/environmental influences on traits (twin studies)  e.g.,parenting Applyfactor-analysis approach to groups (social groups, society, nations) → syntality ○ Applyfactor-analysis approach to groups (social groups, society, nations) → syntality  Later influencedstudies on neighbourhoods (D)Cartell:Research • Very research based, big samples, almost exclusivelystatistical (E) Cartell:Implication • Traits are real • Studies show strong genetic influenceof traits • If similartraits found across culturally, then factor analysismay be the way to go (F) Cattell's Factor-Analytic Theory in Perspective • Was very efficient, wrote influentially • Allportdoesn’t likefactor-analysis, felt there was a loss of individuality IV. The Type Trait Theory of Hans Eysenck (A) Eysenck: Introduction • Statistician, intelligent,but went beyond factor analysis • Focus on cultural contributions to history of personality theory ○ Hippocrates & his four humours ○ Traits for highersynthesis of personality ○ Types represent constitutional differences among people (based on heredity, neurology) • Wundt: 2 types: stable vs. unstable, unchangeable vs. changeable ○ Four temperaments(sanguine, choleric, melancholic, phlegmatic)are arranged as different combination of the two ○ e.g.,Melancholic: unstable and unchangeable • Eysenck replacedchangeable/unchangeablewith introvert
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