PSYC 370 Chapter Notes -Group Conflict, Blood Sugar

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Published on 21 Apr 2013
Simon Fraser University
PSYC 370
"All behaviours, without exception, is completely determined by and pertinent to the
phenomenal field of the behaving organism"
Will: belief that a person decides on & initiates his/her own action, also the self-determination
and understanding that ne can make choice
Human needs are ordered hierarchically
Was against deterministic, scientific psychology b/c it was "imposing something alien to the
experience of the person"
Maslow called it the "third force" in psychology
Used “organism” b/c it gave off a sense of wholeness, completeness
I. Introduction
II. Carl Roger' Person-Centred Theory
Born in Illinoi in wealthy suburb family, 4th of 6 children, in a close knit, highly conservative,
hard working family
b/c father used to be engineer, was exposed to science
Father was civil engineer turned farmer; lived in giant farmhouse (upper middle class
ex. the wickedness of soda pop; others behaves dubiously (smoking, playing cards, going
to movie, drinking) and one should tolerate and avoid them
Isolated him from making friends, felt like outsider
> spent his time reading books
Parents were strict and religious, saw innocent things as “sinful”
Changed major to history. wrote to family to explain his religious epiphany, got married
against their objections
Not 100% reject, but became more liberated in his religious outlook
> committed to
freedom of philosophical thought (whether it dis/agrees with church)
University of Wisconsin, agriculture major, active at church
> chosen as delegate to go to
> exposure turned him from fundamentalism
Columbia University to study psychology
found Freudian learning unhelpful
> diverse staff and everyday clinical experience were
Worked in the Guidance Centre (child study department of society for the prevention of cruelty
to children) in NY for 12 years
Felt that clients knew/had a good idea of what the problem is, which ones to deal with first and
how to deal with it, and it would be better for therapists to let clients direct the flow/process of
Wrote and research extensively on client
centred therapy to expand on “more than a new
Hoped to work with schizophrenics, but client centred approach didn’t work out
Went back to teach in Wisconsin as professor of psychology/psychiatry
> met with
unsupportive psychology colleagues who were ruthlessly competitive and harsh to (his)
graduate students
In later years became more humanistic to discovering what makes people become “fully
(A) Carl Rogers: Personal History
Scientific approach is one with the fewest “potholes” of self
deception in understanding
III. Emphasis
Ch11. Carl Rogers' Theory of the Person
2:00 PM
P370 Textbook Page 1
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Scientific approach is one with the fewest “potholes” of self
deception in understanding
humans, however there’s no such thing as an “objective truth”
Theory of psychotherapy (client centred) and personality change
> Theory of personality: derived from psychotherapy, you can draw out models of P to
form hypotheses about personality dynamics, growth, development, impediments
> theory of fully functioning person
implications: interpersonal relations, family life, education, group leadership, group
Four major emphases:
IV. Major Concepts of Person-Centred Theories
e.g,. hunger, even if you’re engrossed in gaming that you don’t notice it, when you smell
or remember food; but not the biological things like changes in your blood sugar
psychological, and and physiological
Emphasis on immediate experience of the given moment; that is, all that is going on within
envelop of organism/individual (P), even those that P are not aware of
Empathic understanding
: approximately appreciating another’s experience; perceive P’s
internal frame of reference and recognizing significance/emotionally meaning as if you were P
(A) Rogers: Phenomenal Field
: formed by the experiences of the self; the organization consistent conceptual
gestalt composed of perceptions of the characteristics of I/Me to others and to various aspects
of life
Ideal self
: further differentiation; self concept with P would most like to possess, places highest
value for him/herself
Rogers saw this as a way to gain access of self concept that penetrates private experiences
: is a way to study individuals
(B) Rogers: Self and Self-Concept
Forced normal distribution
Asked to repeat, so that the second time reflects ideal self
: give P 100 card with self
descriptive statements. have P rank them into a few piles
ranging in “how accurate is this of you”
Used to measure differences over time, before/after treatment
(C) Rogers: Measurement of Self-Concept
: awareness of self that is differentiated out of experiences early in course of
Reciprocal, b/c when you have positive regard for others, you fulfill your own needs too
Can do without if you have strong self
Need for
positive regard
: P infers regard, positive or negative, of another person
Need for
positive self
: become “significant social other” for self
(D) Rogers: Self-experience
When self experience is avoided (/sought) because it is less (/more) worthy than self
regard, then P has acquired condition of worth
ex. mother says “I don’t like it when you do that”, is setting conditions of worth
Conditions of worth
: that you are more positively regarded b/c of what you did
Pursuit of positive regard from others b/c of perceived conditions of self worth is
psychologically destructive!
> and being true to yourself
Experiences associated with negative conditions of worth threaten self
> we tend to distort or
avoid them
(E) Rogers: Conditions of Worth
P370 Textbook Page 2
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