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Ch11. Theory of Person

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PSYC 370
Robert Ley

Ch11. Carl Rogers' Theory of the Person April-09-13 2:00 PM I. Introduction • Will: beliefthat a person decides on & initiateshis/her own action, also the self-determination and understanding that ne can makechoice ○ "All behaviours, without exception, is completelydetermined by and pertinent to the phenomenal fieldof the behaving organism" • Maslow calledit the "third force" in psychology ○ Human needs are ordered hierarchically ○ Was against deterministic,scientific psychology b/c it was "imposing something aliento the experienceof the person" • Used “organism” b/c it gave off a sense of wholeness, completeness II. Carl Roger' Person-Centred Theory (A) Carl Rogers: Personal History • Born in Illinoi in wealthysuburb family, 4th of 6 children, in a close knit, highlyconservative, hard working family • Father wascivil engineer turned farmer; lived in giant farmhouse (upper middleclass neighbourhood) ○ b/c father used to be engineer, was exposed to science • Parents were strict and religious, saw innocent things as “sinful” ○ ex. the wickedness of soda pop; others behaves dubiously(smoking, playingcards, going to movie, drinking) and one should tolerate and avoid them ○ Isolated him from makingfriends, felt like outsider --> spent his timereading books • University of Wisconsin,agriculture major, active at church --> chosen as delegate to go to China --> exposure turned him from fundamentalism--> WHAT IF JESUS WAS JUST ANOTHER MAN ○ Changed major to history. wrote to family to explain his religious epiphany, got married against their objections ○ Not 100% reject, but became more liberated in his religious outlook--> committedto freedom of philosophicalthought (whether it dis/agrees with church) • ColumbiaUniversity to study psychology • Worked in the GuidanceCentre (child study departmentof society for the prevention of cruelty to children) in NY for 12 years ○ found Freudian learning unhelpful --> diverse staff and everyday clinical experience were better • Felt that clients knew/had a good idea of what the problem is, which ones to deal with first and how to deal with it, and it wouldbe better for therapists to let clients direct the flow/process of therapy • Wrote and research extensively on client-centred therapy to expand on “more than a new pathway” • Went back to teach in Wisconsin as professor of psychology/psychiatry --> met with unsupportivepsychology colleagues who were ruthlessly competitiveand harsh to (his) graduatestudents ○ Hoped to work with schizophrenics,but client centred approachdidn’t work out • In later years became more humanisticto discovering what makes people become “fully functioning” III. Emphasis • Scientificapproachis one with the fewest “potholes”of self-deception in understanding • Scientificapproachis one with the fewest “potholes”of self-deception in understanding humans,however there’s no such thingas an “objective truth” • Four major emphases: ○ Theory of psychotherapy(client centred) and personality change ○ --> Theory of personality: derived from psychotherapy, you can draw out models of P to form hypotheses about personalitydynamics, growth, development, impediments ○ --> theory of fully functioningperson ○ implications:interpersonal relations, familylife, education,group leadership, group conflict IV. Major Concepts of Person-Centred Theories (A) Rogers: Phenomenal Field • Emphasison immediateexperience of the given moment; that is, all that is going on within envelop of organism/individual(P), even those that P are not aware of ○ e.g,. hunger, even if you’re engrossed in gamingthat you don’t notice it, when you smell or remember food; but not the biologicalthings like changes in your blood sugar --> psychological,and and physiological • Empathic understanding: approximatelyappreciatinganother’sexperience; perceive P’s internal frame of reference and recognizingsignificance/emotionallymeaningas if you were P (B) Rogers: Self and Self-Concept • Self-concept: formed by the experiences of the self; the organizationconsistent conceptual gestalt composed of perceptions of the characteristics of I/Me to others and to various aspects of life • Ideal self: further differentiation; self concept with P would most like to possess, places highest value for him/herself • Q-technique: is a wayto study individuals ○ Rogers saw this as a way to gain access of self concept that penetrates private experiences (C) Rogers: Measurementof Self-Concept • Q-sort: give P 100 card with self-descriptive statements.have P rank them into a few piles ranging in “how accurateis this of you” ○ Forced normal distribution ○ Asked to repeat, so that the second time reflects ideal self • Used to measure differences over time, before/after treatment (D) Rogers: Self-experience • Self-experience:awareness of self that is differentiated out of experiences early in course of development • Need for positive regard: P infers regard, positive or negative, of anotherperson ○ Reciprocal,b/c when you have positive regard for others, you fulfill your own needs too ○ Can do withoutif you have strong self-concept • Need for positive self-regard:become “significant social other” for self (E) Rogers:Conditions of Worth • Conditions of worth: that you are more positively regarded b/c of what you did ○ When self experience is avoided (/sought) because it is less (/more) worthy than self regard, then P has acquired conditionof worth ○ ex. mother says “I don’t like it when you do that”, is setting conditionsof worth • Experiences associated with negative conditionsof worth threaten self --> we tend to distort or avoid them ○ Pursuit of positive regard from others b/c of perceived conditionsof self worth is psychologicallydestructive! --> and being true to yourself psychologicallydestructive! --> and being true to yourself (F) Rogers: Congruence and Incongruence • the relation between self-experience and self-concept • Stateof congruence when self-experience are accuratelysymbolized and includedin self- concept in accuratesymbolic form ○ aka, integrated, whole, genuine • Incongruence: when experiences conflict with self ○ e.g., through conditionsof worth ○ “I’m a bad person for doingthat” --> may perceive experiences selectively, may be distorted or partially/whollydenied --> self concept now has inaccurateperceptions (G) Rogers: Threat and Anxiety • Incongruent experiences causes threat, whichcauses anxiety, which causes defences to protect self from violationof conditionsof worth as last attempt to preserve positive self-regard • Selective inattention: a form of defence; directs attentionawayfrom experience that carry anxiousmeaning • Dissociation:a form of defenc
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