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Chapter 11

Chapter 11: Rogers, Kelly, and Positive Psychology

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Simon Fraser University
PSYC 370
Robert Ley

PSYC 370 – Fall 2012 Book Notes: Chapter 11 – Carl Rogers’ Theory of the Person, George Kelly’s Personal Construct Theory, and Positive Psychology (pp. 356-377) Five Points to Keep in Mind… - Phenomenology and existentialism share the belief that the phenomenal world of each person is reality - Phenomenologists see the person as intrinsically good and the prospects of a fulfilling life hopeful - American phenomenal psychology was a psychotherapy to enable people stricken by traumas to actualize themselves - Phenomenology became a self-actualizing personality theory - Humanist movement focused on the characteristics and benefits of the psychologically healthy side of life Abraham Maslow - Called phenomenology a ‘third force’ in psychology - Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs – view that human needs are ordered in a hierarchy and only reach self-actualization when all the lower deficiencies have been met Carl Rogers’ Theory of the Person Carl Rogers – Personal History - Born in Jathary 1902 in Oak Park, Illinois - Was the 4 of 6 children - Close knit family – hard work and conservative Protestant Christianity were revered - Well-off family; father was an engineer turned farmer - After a attending a youth conference in China, he had an insight that changed his beliefs – “Jesus was a man like other men – not divine!” - University of Wisconsin (Agriculture, switched to history)  Union Theological Seminary in NY (led him away from the church)  Teachers College at Columbia University (Psychology) - Institute of Child Guidance – pre-doctoral Internship - PhD in 1931 - Child Study Department of the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children – 12 years o In his years there, he realized the Freudian learning was unhelpful o Later realized that it is the client who knows what hurts, what directions to go, what problems are crucial, what experiences have been deeply buried - Ohio State University 1940s - University of Chicago 1945 o Client-centered therapy The Major Concepts of Person-Centered Theory - Phenomenal Field – gives greatest importance to immediate experience, the experience of the ‘given moment’ o Empathetic understanding – appreciating another’s experience; perceiving his or her internal frame of reference and recognizing its significance and emotional meaning as if one were the person, never losing sight of the ‘as if’ - Self and Self-concept – experiences of the self form the self-concept o Ideal self – the self-concept which the individual would most like to possess, upon which he places the highest value for himself o Q-technique – a way of penetrating private experience to gain access to self-concept - Measurement of self-concept o Q-sort – sorting words as describing or not describing one’s self (i.e. on a scale of 1-10) - Self-experience – awareness of the self that becomes differentiated out of experience early in the course of development o Need for positive regard – we can live without positive regard if we have a strong self- concept o Need for positive self-regard – we view ourselves and our experiences of positive or negative regard - Conditions of Worth – say that you are more or less positively regarded because of what you have done, said, stood for o i.e.
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