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Chapter 15

Chapter 15: Social Cognitive Learning, Bandura and Mischel

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Simon Fraser University
PSYC 370
Robert Ley

PSYC 370 – Fall 2012 Book Notes: Chapter 15 – The Social Cognitive Learning Theories of Albert Bandura and Walter Mischel Albert Bandura - Demoted the established principle that behavior acquisition depends on immediate reinforcement  making behaviorism both social and cognitive - Imitation  owe have to have someone to imitate (a model) and we have to have a reason for imitation - Observational learning: responsible for the rescue and established social cognitive learning theory (SCLT) o Young children were exposed to an adult model that performed novel aggressive acts on a large inflated doll (Bobo). Later alone, children spontaneously reproduced the aggressive repertoire. Subsequent experiments showed that filed and cartoon models elicited the same vicarious learning of aggression Observational Learning and the Reinforcement Principle - Recognized that reinforcement is effective only when the behaving/observing person notes the reinforcing contingencies (behavior x flowed by desirable or by negative consequences) and sees their relevance to situations he/she can anticipate - Reinforcements affects not acquisition but the performance of modeled learning  children seeing a model who is punished for striking Bobo show very little aggression, but this doesn’t mean that they haven’t learned it - Offered rewards for doing exactly what the model did, they imitate closely. - 2 conclusions: 1. Learning that forms the basis of personality is social  we learn from observing the behavior of other people and may add the more significant those other people are to us, the more similar they are to us, the more they profit from (are rewarded for) the behavior we see. And the more we are able to actually do what they do, the more likely it is that we will imitate them 2. Learning of consequence to personality is cognitive  We see children as they observe the behavior of others selecting important aspects of that witness behavior, remembering them and thinking about them and then reproducing them later in the right (as each child sees it) context Emphases and Major Concepts of Social Cognitive Theory The New Reinforcement Principle - Development of SCLT’s claim that overt reinforcement isn’t necessary to new learning. The observing child anticipates (cognitive process) the reinforcement he/she will receive for imitating a modeled act  Self- reinforcement: reinforcement that is self- administered as we evaluate what we do, feeling good (self-reinforcement) or bad (self- punishment) as a consequence o Reward/punish ourselves for good/bad behavior - Bandura argues that reinforcement is informative and motivational and not automatic in its effect. - It is an antecedent, guiding future behavior, not the consequence of behavior directed toward it o Antecedent: cause or source of a particular trait.  Also part of the intervening variable paradigm; intervening variable (“concept”) are tied to observable antecedents and consequents Determinism - Lewin defined the relation of behavior to person and the meaningful context (field/environment) in which behavior takes place as B = (P,E): behavior is a function of both person and environment  change the attributes of person or situation and the behavior will be different - Person and environment are independent influences on behavior  person-situation interaction (unidirectional determinism) o Ex: an aggressive boy on a school playground joins a touch football game. The rough and tumble of the game makes him angry and he strikes the boy who tagged him. 2 effects on behavior - aggressiveness in the boy and an aggressive game – operate independently to produce his behavior - Bandura points out that we could think of person and environment mutually influencing each other  partially bidirectional determination o Ex: aggressive boy’s behavior induces the other boys in the game to play more roughly and their increased aggressiveness magnifies his own anger - Reciprocal determining:, in which behavior itself influences the person and situation each of which affects behavior  recognizes that characteristics of the person ) personality attributes), the person’s behavior and the environment all reciprocally affect each other o Ex: aggressive boy playing an aggressive game, making him more aggressive. His increased aggressiveness acts on the other boys in the game, making them more aggressive. In turn, their greater aggressiveness and his own aggressive behavior arouse even greater aggression Self- reinforcement - Human behavior is controlled by reinforcing stimuli in the environment - Bandura believes that behavior is determined not only by extern consequences (rewards/punishments) but very significantly by self-reinforcement o We learned standards that apply to the things we do and think; when we meet them, we are pleased and proud and when we don’t measure up we are disappointed in ourselves, ashamed or guilt-ridden Self-regulation: determination of our behavior by self-initiated cognitive acts - Bandura argues most behavior is self-regulated. Internal standards and goals profoundly influence how we think, feel and act 3 processes in self-regulation: 1. Self-observation: monitoring of one’s own behavior o Subprocesses: performance (such aspect as quality, originality, sociability, morality) ; regulate of what we do (getting up in time for every morning’s class) ; accuracy of what we do 2. Judgmental processes apply standards both personal and those that come from others, in regulating our behavior o When we meet challenges (or sometimes fall short), we compare our performances to others and attributes our success /failure to internal/external causes o Subprocesses: standards, comparison to others, and attribution of outcomes 3. Self-reaction: evaluating ourselves, rewarding/punishing, and sometimes evading bad implications of our behavior o Reward may be in the form of a positive feeling of accomplishment. Self- punishment is likely to consist of painful feelings of failure. Rewards/punishments may also be tangible – giving oneself something especially desired as a reward for a real success, exposing oneself to criticism from others or even deliberately hurting oneself - Proposes a number of mechanisms by which we distance ourselves form consequences of bad acts o Moral justification o identify our inhumane acts with euphemism o dehumanize the people we hurt, attributing the blame to them o subprocesses: evaluation & reactions to one’s actions The Person as Agent - future orientation of reinforcement, self-regulation, self-reinforcement and the fact that behavior is produced by thinking and feeling humans who react to and change their environments add up to a perspective that bandura calls an agentic view of personality o Humans are the agents of their actions and cognitive processes, not simply creatures controlled by environmental constancies o People as agents in charge of their own behavior are architects of conscious choices and deliberate action o Important implication of the person as agent in action and choice is that brai
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