Textbook Notes (363,094)
Canada (158,187)
Psychology (900)
PSYC 370 (60)
Robert Ley (46)
Chapter 3

Chapter 3: Psychoanalysis and Sigmund Freud

4 Pages
Unlock Document

Simon Fraser University
PSYC 370
Robert Ley

PSYC 370 – Fall 2012 Book Notes: Chapter 3 – Psychoanalytic Theory: Sigmund Freud Traumatic Events and the Symptoms of Neurosis - Recognition of the role of childhood trauma in causing adult psychological distress - Some disturbance in the course of the child’s development could have serious neurotic consequences - Symptoms represent a terribly self-denying and unsuccessful compromise Instincts, the Unconscious, and Defenses - Biological urges become wishes of the most extreme sort - It is a human inevitability to be at war with one’s self THREE PARTS OF PERSONALITY – agencies that determine thought, feeling, and action Id – containing instincts, - Das es – German for “the it” - No tolerance for frustration, seeks to discharge tension immediately - Two mechanisms used that constitute the Pleasure Principle o Reflex Action – pursuing pleasure and avoiding pain; i.e. sucking, sneezing, coughing o Primary Process – discharges tension through the hallucinations of objects that will satisfy an instinct  Wish Fulfillment – a hallucinated image in which the need is fulfilled - Instincts have four attributes o Source – state of need; i.e. nutritional deficiency or a state of sexual arousal o Aim – is the removal of tension o Object – refers both to the environmental object or person that will reduce the state of excitation and to all the things that must take place before the need is satisfied  i.e. everything in between the wish and need satisfaction o Impetus – the strength of an instinct; the greater the deprivation experienced, the greater the impetus - Repetition Compulsion – instinctual cycle; we are condemned by our nature to repeat throughout life the arousal of tension and its diminution o Also refers to the perseverative repetition of inadequate and unsuccessful attempts to gratify instincts - Two classes of instincts o Life Instincts – purpose is individual survival and species preservation; i.e. hunger and sex  Libido – the motor of life instincts; the form of energy o Death Instincts – responsible for behavior that is destructive to others and to ourselves  Responsible for the ending of life Ego – the actor; the executor in personality - The middle ground between the id and the superego - Engages in defense – holding back those wishes of the id that cannot be gratified or whose gratification must be made to conform to social rules - It is the id’s energy that allows the ego to carry out its worldly and intrapersonal missions - Ego must remember past punishments and anticipate them again when forbidden wishes make their presence known - Rule: The Reality Principle o Secondary Process – invoke realistic and appropriate means of attaining need satisfaction - The ego sees there is a threat and is frightened.. this experience is anxiety (3 kinds) o Reality Anxiety – anxiety’s prototype; fear of realistic danger in the environment o Neurotic Anxiety – anxiety experienced by the ego when dangerous instincts of the id are poised to break through  Reality anxiety that is applied to internal dangers  Ego stands in the way of these extreme urges by putting up barriers called anti-cathexis • Also called defense mechanisms • Functions to prevent the investment of energy of cathexis (investment of energy in an object associated with instant gratification) • An anxious person will not know that they are employing them to defend against anxiety • These defense mechanisms distort reality – both the reality of the dangerous instinct and external reality o Moral Anxiety – *related to the superego Superego – moral agency; the voice of society; conscience - The self to which we aspire – the ego ideal - Capacity for internalized behavior control - Conscience – goads us into behaving decently and resisting temptation to act in ways we know are bad - When the superego condemns, we experience moral anxiety and guilt - The superego is a tyrant Defense Mechanisms – variations on the purpose of denying conscious access to tolerable ideas by banishment or distortion - Reaction Formation – makes intolerable feelings harmless by transforming them into their opposites o i.e. sexual attraction is turned into renunciation hatred; hatred into love - Projection – entails the attribution to others of wishes an feelings that are intolerable to our own egos, making them appear as external threats that can be defended against, rather than internal threats o Freud saw this as the basis of paranoia - Fixation and Regression – progress from one developmental stage to the next stage may be interrupted; they remain fixated in a particular stage o Regression – when one that is traumatized, returns to an earlier developmental stage o Specific forms of regression a person shows are likely to be related to earlier fixations - Undoing – neutralized an unconscionable idea or act by following it with another that negates the first - Repression – the selective forgetting of ideas, wishes, and memories whose recall would lead to unendurable anxiety o It is involuntary, and is inaccessible to the conscious mind o It continues to exert a covert influence whenever there are associative or external reminders - Denial – The Stages of Personality Development – psychoanalysis finds discontinuities in the developmental course; distinct stages that must be entered and completed - Stages correspond to the biological unfolding of instincts, and they represent t
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 370

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.