Textbook Notes (368,107)
Canada (161,650)
Psychology (934)
PSYC 370 (60)
Robert Ley (46)
Chapter 5

Chapter 5 Ego Psychology

5 Pages
Unlock Document

PSYC 370
Robert Ley

PSYC 370 – Fall 2012 Book Notes: Chapter 5 – Ego Psychology: Anna Freud, Heinz Hartman, and Erik Erikson Anna Freud - Born in 1895 - The youngest of Freud’s 6 children – the most gifted and accomplished of his children - Took care of Freud when he got cancer of the jaw - Trained Erik Erikson - Major contribution was the concept of developmental lines o Plot the sequence of a child’s growth from helpless dependence to self-absorption to greater maturity and independence Heinz Hartman – father of the ego movement in psychoanalysis - Born in 1894 - Attended the University of Vienna (like Freud) - Add the concept of the primary autonomy of the ego functions (apparatuses) as operating to organize important aspects of the personality – partially frees the ego from the dominance of the id - Places the ego decisively in the social world Erik Erikson - Born in 1902 - Was born out of wedlock - Was raised Jewish - Had trouble in school - Travelled after high school - Was invited by Anna Freud to undertake training analysis with her - Opened a child analyst clinic in Boston - Appreciation for personality development, the identity crisis of adolescence, and the role of society and culture in personality formation and neurosis - Books: Childhood and Society; Identity: Youth and Crisis; Insight and Responsibility; Toys and Reasons; The Life Cycle Completed: A Review; Young Man Luther; Gandhi’s Truth; Vital Involvement in Old Age Erikson’s Theory - Saw that societies exercise a great influence on how the heritage of infancy is expressed - Societies shape the ego in the course of the lifespan - Societies lighten the inescapable conflicts of childhood with a promise of some security, identity, and integrity; reinforces the values by which the ego exists, societies create the only condition under which human growth is possible Epigenetic Psychological Development – tells us how the maturing organism continues to unfold by developing a prescribed sequence of locomotor, sensory, and social capacities by which an individual becomes a distinct person - Epigenesis – describes the emergence of an embryonic organism from unorganized, undifferentiated protoplasm, and a regular, sequenced programming of organ development Zones, Modes, and Modalities Erogenous Zones – oral, anal, and phallic-genital Five Modes 1. Incorporative – taking in both nourishment and sensation 2. Incorporative – the active, biting, teething oral mode 3. Retentive – the ability to hold in, as with feces 4. Eliminative – the mode of letting go 5. Intrusive – the aggressively exploratory moving-in on adults’ and other children’s space, activity, bodies (as with physical attack); active locomotion Modalities – ways in which societies and cultures deal with zone-mode features of the psychosexual stages Age Psychosexual Stage Mode Psychosocial Crises Infancy (to 1 year) Oral-sensory Incorporative (first Basic trust vs. mistrust passive, then active) Early childhood (1-3) Muscular-anal Eliminative-retentive Autonomy vs. shame and doubt Play age (4-5) Locomotor-genital Intrusive-feminine Initiative vs. guilt (phallic) inception School age (6-12) Latency Industry vs. inferiority Adolescence (12-20) Puberty and genital Identity vs. identity maturity confusion Young adulthood (20- Intimacy vs. isolation 30) Adulthood (30-65) Generativity vs. stagnation Maturity (65+) Ego integrity vs. despair Psychosocial Nuclear Crisis 1. Trust vs. Mistrust o An elemental experience of comfort and security provided by the mother o Basic trust gives the infant the ego strength to endure deprivation, and is the foundation of the virtue of hope – the enduring belief in the attainability of fervent wishes, in spite of dark urges and rages which mark the beginning of existence o Sense that everything is (or is not) all right o First discovery of an immature ego: uncertainty and anxiety over the mothers’ unpredictability and too much unrelieved discomfort 2. Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt o New muscular capacities and cognitive abilities, and the young child has to acquire self- control o Parental task is to impose socialization demands and set limits in a firm, reasonable, and reassuring way, so that children can experience pride in being able to control themselves o From a sense of self-control without loss of self-esteem comes a lasting sense of good will and pride; from a sense of loss of self-control and of foreign overcontrol comes a lasting propensity for doubt and shame o Virtue of will – a self-determination and understanding that one can make choices, including the choice to refrain, the choice to obey rule and social ritual o i.e. toilet training, mobility, getting into things, limits of naptime and bedtime 3. Initiative vs. Guilt o Children are more active and verbal, taking on new things, planning and anticipating in their play and interactions o Boys: phallic intrusiveness; girls: phallic inception o Oedipal urges that have to be disciplined and put away o Parental task: be gentle and reassuring in a decisive way; reward initiative, pride in self, and sense of purpose o Virtue of purpose 4. Industry vs. Inferiority o Latency period – described as the lull before the storm of puberty o Virtue of competence o The child who fails here loses faith in his or her own abilities and loses status among peers o Parental role: preparing their children for school 5. Identity vs. Identity Confusion o Transition to adult responsibilities and life comes at a time of rapid physical growth and sexual maturity o Ego identity – means making decisions about who one is and what one will become o Three commitments: commitment to an occupation and preparing for it; approach to intimacy with a life a partner; belief system, an ideology to guide one’s life o Signs of identity confusion or role confusion – dropping out of school, drug use, indiscriminate sexual behavior, and confrontational and rebellious relationships with
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 370

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.