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Chapter 5

Chapter 5 Ego Psychology

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 370
Professor
Robert Ley
Semester
Fall

Description
PSYC 370 – Fall 2012 Book Notes: Chapter 5 – Ego Psychology: Anna Freud, Heinz Hartman, and Erik Erikson Anna Freud - Born in 1895 - The youngest of Freud’s 6 children – the most gifted and accomplished of his children - Took care of Freud when he got cancer of the jaw - Trained Erik Erikson - Major contribution was the concept of developmental lines o Plot the sequence of a child’s growth from helpless dependence to self-absorption to greater maturity and independence Heinz Hartman – father of the ego movement in psychoanalysis - Born in 1894 - Attended the University of Vienna (like Freud) - Add the concept of the primary autonomy of the ego functions (apparatuses) as operating to organize important aspects of the personality – partially frees the ego from the dominance of the id - Places the ego decisively in the social world Erik Erikson - Born in 1902 - Was born out of wedlock - Was raised Jewish - Had trouble in school - Travelled after high school - Was invited by Anna Freud to undertake training analysis with her - Opened a child analyst clinic in Boston - Appreciation for personality development, the identity crisis of adolescence, and the role of society and culture in personality formation and neurosis - Books: Childhood and Society; Identity: Youth and Crisis; Insight and Responsibility; Toys and Reasons; The Life Cycle Completed: A Review; Young Man Luther; Gandhi’s Truth; Vital Involvement in Old Age Erikson’s Theory - Saw that societies exercise a great influence on how the heritage of infancy is expressed - Societies shape the ego in the course of the lifespan - Societies lighten the inescapable conflicts of childhood with a promise of some security, identity, and integrity; reinforces the values by which the ego exists, societies create the only condition under which human growth is possible Epigenetic Psychological Development – tells us how the maturing organism continues to unfold by developing a prescribed sequence of locomotor, sensory, and social capacities by which an individual becomes a distinct person - Epigenesis – describes the emergence of an embryonic organism from unorganized, undifferentiated protoplasm, and a regular, sequenced programming of organ development Zones, Modes, and Modalities Erogenous Zones – oral, anal, and phallic-genital Five Modes 1. Incorporative – taking in both nourishment and sensation 2. Incorporative – the active, biting, teething oral mode 3. Retentive – the ability to hold in, as with feces 4. Eliminative – the mode of letting go 5. Intrusive – the aggressively exploratory moving-in on adults’ and other children’s space, activity, bodies (as with physical attack); active locomotion Modalities – ways in which societies and cultures deal with zone-mode features of the psychosexual stages Age Psychosexual Stage Mode Psychosocial Crises Infancy (to 1 year) Oral-sensory Incorporative (first Basic trust vs. mistrust passive, then active) Early childhood (1-3) Muscular-anal Eliminative-retentive Autonomy vs. shame and doubt Play age (4-5) Locomotor-genital Intrusive-feminine Initiative vs. guilt (phallic) inception School age (6-12) Latency Industry vs. inferiority Adolescence (12-20) Puberty and genital Identity vs. identity maturity confusion Young adulthood (20- Intimacy vs. isolation 30) Adulthood (30-65) Generativity vs. stagnation Maturity (65+) Ego integrity vs. despair Psychosocial Nuclear Crisis 1. Trust vs. Mistrust o An elemental experience of comfort and security provided by the mother o Basic trust gives the infant the ego strength to endure deprivation, and is the foundation of the virtue of hope – the enduring belief in the attainability of fervent wishes, in spite of dark urges and rages which mark the beginning of existence o Sense that everything is (or is not) all right o First discovery of an immature ego: uncertainty and anxiety over the mothers’ unpredictability and too much unrelieved discomfort 2. Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt o New muscular capacities and cognitive abilities, and the young child has to acquire self- control o Parental task is to impose socialization demands and set limits in a firm, reasonable, and reassuring way, so that children can experience pride in being able to control themselves o From a sense of self-control without loss of self-esteem comes a lasting sense of good will and pride; from a sense of loss of self-control and of foreign overcontrol comes a lasting propensity for doubt and shame o Virtue of will – a self-determination and understanding that one can make choices, including the choice to refrain, the choice to obey rule and social ritual o i.e. toilet training, mobility, getting into things, limits of naptime and bedtime 3. Initiative vs. Guilt o Children are more active and verbal, taking on new things, planning and anticipating in their play and interactions o Boys: phallic intrusiveness; girls: phallic inception o Oedipal urges that have to be disciplined and put away o Parental task: be gentle and reassuring in a decisive way; reward initiative, pride in self, and sense of purpose o Virtue of purpose 4. Industry vs. Inferiority o Latency period – described as the lull before the storm of puberty o Virtue of competence o The child who fails here loses faith in his or her own abilities and loses status among peers o Parental role: preparing their children for school 5. Identity vs. Identity Confusion o Transition to adult responsibilities and life comes at a time of rapid physical growth and sexual maturity o Ego identity – means making decisions about who one is and what one will become o Three commitments: commitment to an occupation and preparing for it; approach to intimacy with a life a partner; belief system, an ideology to guide one’s life o Signs of identity confusion or role confusion – dropping out of school, drug use, indiscriminate sexual behavior, and confrontational and rebellious relationships with
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