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Psyc 391 Psychology and Sustainability Reading Notes.pdf

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Simon Fraser University
PSYC 391
Michael Schmitt

09_11 Frantz & Mayer (2009) October-03-13 11:18 AM The Emergency of Climate Change: Why Are We Failing to Take Action? • Threat of climate change doesn't seem as real as other threats (wars) ○ Only 47% USA consider it an important issue • Latane and Darley Model Five Stage Model of Helping • (1) potential helper notices the event → The great distance between us and those who are affected by climate change makes it easy to remain unaware • (2) interpret event as emergencysituation → overreactingis not favourable b/c it seems foolish • (3) sense of personal responsibility to aid those distressed (we-ness) ○ Diffusion of responsibility (if there are other people whom they can rely on other than you, lees sense of responsibility) • (4) knowing what to do • (5) deciding to act • These factors enhance a person's sense of empowerment& self efficacy to promotehelping • Cost-benefit analysis: not wanted to overreact(lose approval of others) vs. feeling negative affect for possible blame ○ People tend to take the easy way out (just dealing with emotionsvs. acting) Helping behaviour and the Environment • Each stage is intertwined and affect each other recursively • Changes at societylevel structures (ex. policies) influences changes at individual level (psychology) • Collective action is the key Stage 1: noticing the event • Environmentalproblems is hard to notice (cumulativechanges over long period of time) • Climate change not spread evenly over the world, tend to be in remote& distant areas • Modern life means spending more time indoors & not relying on nature for livelihood • People whose lives are tied to environmentnotices climate changes more → need to put in more effort so others can see it too (educators, policy makers, scientist) • Take steps to decrease distance between potential helper and emergency → ↑noticing climate change Stage 2: Interpret even as emergency • Can't be objectivebecause fears, desires & goals influence how you evaluate evidence → hard to accept climate change as an emergency • Motivating people through fear can easily backfire because, when anxious, people may avoid thinking about distressing information→ best pair it with specific recommendationfor action → help people cope and movethrough the stages of the model • Anti-science skepticism needs to be addressed • Modeling for the others → shows them how to react to situations • Cognitive dissonance (inherently unpleasant tension when acting inconsistentlyfrom our self- concept) increases chances that people will change their beliefs or actions to re-establish consistency → improve chances of changing action by giving real options • Optimism:people feel change is possible and problem can be solved Stage 3: feeling personally responsible to act • Easy for people to feel not responsible for taking action, due to narrowly defined norm of responsibility & involvementof many parties responsibility & involvementof many parties • People are motivatedto perceive that it is someoneelse's job, esp. when the emergency seems too daunting for individual to handle • Problem focused coping: taking direct action to confront threat → P's usual preferred method • Emotionfocused coping: ignoring / denying threat → usually when P has little control over situation • Acting in a group increases self-efficacy & personal control → less likely to engage in emotion focused coping ○ e.g., churches, community • Increase in knowledge doesn’t ↔ increase sense of responsibility Stage 4: knowing what to do • In the information age, the important thing is motivatingpeople to seek out the information • Change at level of government/industryis more urgent → e.g., the green bin, biweekly garbage collectionforces citizens to rethink their behaviours ○ Makes it easier for individuals to change attitude & behaviour • Connects like-minded citizens Stage 5: Implementing the required acts • Structural impossible or inconvenient → ex. no public transit available • Habit/norms take time to form → repetitive formationof everyday behaviours (turn off lights, choose local produce) • Norms are "what people do" → once established, don't need external intervention Overarching Cost-Benefit Analysis • People are averse to loss • Can increases cost of behaviour in direct/ experimental way → ex. carbon tax • Can highlight benefits associated with switching to sustainable lifestyle • Should communicateby focusing on what really matters → happiness, personal friendship, social support, sense of meaning & purpose Concluding Thoughts • Easy to be convinced it's someoneelse's responsibility • Can intervene at educational policy & environmentalpolicy 9_11 Gifford (2011) October-04-13 11:44 AM The Dragons of Inaction: PsychologicalBarriers That Limit Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Introduction • Too few global citizens engage in high greenhouse gas emitting behaviour • Hindered by the 7 "dragons of inaction" • Sometimesbehavioural deficits are structural and within P's control • There tends to be a gap between attitude & behaviour with regard to environmentalproblem PsychologicalBarriers to Behavioural Change • 3 broad phases of climate-relatedinaction: genuine ignorance → learning leads to psychological process → behaviour may still fade away (1) Limited Cognition • Ancient Brain: Global change is slow, distant, unrelated to self → evolutionarilyspeaking, the brain is not well suited to deal with slow changes • Ignorance: not knowing a problem, not knowing what action to take, how to go through with action, what benefits action will have ○ Answers aren't always universal & obvious ○ Due to mixed messages in the media • Environmental numbness: P tend to attend to environmentsselectively. ○ P are distant from climate change → not causing immediateproblem or requires immediateattention ○ Habituation occurs when people are bombarded with the same message • Uncertainty:P tend to interpret signs of uncertainty as sufficient reason to justify self-interest than environment& postpone action • Judgemental discounting: believed that environmentalconditions are worse in places than others → Easier to discount future risk • Optimismbias: people discount personal risk of climate change • Perceived behavioural control and self efficacy: individuals believe they can do nothing, have little behavioural control over the outcome,that their actions will have little impact (2) Ideologies • Worldviews:belief in free-enterprisecapitalism (ex. devastationof fisheries, forests, etc.) • Suprahuman powers: believe in & depend on religious deity or Mother Nature • Technosalvation:believe that technologyalone can solve the problem with climate change → can backfire via overconfidentbeliefs • System justification:tendency to defend/ justify societal status quo (3) Comparisonwith Other People • Social comparison: with others about what is "proper" course of action • Social norms and network: P tend to conformto what they believe is the norm (told that neighbours used less energy) • Perceived inequity: "why should I change if they won't?" → fear others will not change even if you change (4) Sunk Costs • Investmentsof money, time, behaviour pattern • Financial investments:"you already bought the car, why not use it" until disadvantages becometoo painful. ○ Cognitive dissonance often is easier to reduce by changing mind than behaviours • Behavioural momentum: habit is less benign is context of climate change → habits do not change without substantial push change without substantial push • Conflictingvalues, goals and aspirations: "to get ahead," usually interferes with reducing climate change impacts; P tend to assign low importanceto climate change; • Lack of place attachment: P are more likely to care for a place if they're attached to it; less now b/c how societyhas changed (5) Discredence • When you see P in negative light, you probably won't listen to P • Mistrust:trust is easily damaged and when absent, causes resistance → behaviour requires trust (not to take advantage change is effective,valuable, etc.) • Perceived program inadequacy: motsclimate-relatedprograms tend to be voluntary for individuals & not mandatory; participation is limited, esp. if P feels program is not good enough • Denial: substantial minorities believe that climate change is not happening or not caused by human activity → "invented by scientist" ○ Supported by negative emotions(fear) ○ Terror management theory: deny b/c it reminds P of their own mortality • Reactance: b/c policy seems to threaten freedom, b/c of lack of trust in policy maker (6) PerceivedRisk • Functional risk: will it work? • Physicalrisk: is there somedanger associated with it? • Financial risk:will owners have to pay for installation? How much will people have to invest before the savings kick in? • Social risk: public face at risk of judgement • Psychologicalrisk: damage to self esteem & self confidence • Temporal risk: time spent planning & adopting new course of action (7) Limited Behaviours • Tokenism: some behavioural changes are easier than others, but have different impact on GHG → low-cost hypothesis • Rebound effect: Jevons paradox; gains are diminished or erased by subsequent action Toward a Taxonomyof PsychologicalBarriers to Behaviour Change Existing Models • Theory of planned behaviour • Value-belief-norm model:people will still not act pro-env. if they do not believe they can reduce consequences → person should have sense of obligation & develop norms in 4 pro-env actions (activism, public non-activitstbehaviours, private behaviours, action within organization) • DO-RITE: Define target behaviours, Observe behaviour, Record rate of occurrence,Intervene with program that changes target behaviour, Test impact based on behaviour before/after intervention,Evaluate program • Five-stage bystander intervention model Parsimonyvs. Comprehensiveness • Are current models too simple? • The 7 "dragons" are intertwined and interact Motivationand Emotions • Assumes that removal of barriers will increase motivationto act • Emotionsdon't seem to be central aspect of may other barriers, even though cognitive systemsare engaged Conclusion • Need more examination of each barrier • Good theories inform/ direct scientific progress • Extent of barriers faced by individuals in different groups & contexts • Extent of barriers faced by individuals in different groups & contexts • Expect facing multiple barriers cumulates to increase an individuals amotivation • Denial is still important • Need to understand how P can overcomebarriers • Need to find opportunities to promotesocial networkto spread adoption 09_16 Feinberg(2011) October-04-13 1:25 PM Apocalypse Soon?: Dire Messages Reduce Belief in Global Warming by Contradicting Just-World Beliefs • High percentages of people in the United States and elsewhere increasingly see global warming as nonexistent, exaggerated, or unrelated to human activity • Research shows that many individuals have a strong need to perceivethe world as just, believing that rewards will be bestowedon individuals who judiciously strive for them and punishments will be meted out to those who deservethem • When threatened → defensive response (dismissal, rationalization, etc.) Study 1 • Dire message: ↑ just world belief ↔ ↑ skepticism • Positivemessage: ↑ just world belief ↔ ↓ skepticism Study 2 • Those primed with just-world statements → ↑ skepticism • Dire messageslead to increased global warming skepticism because they conflict with just- world beliefs. • Those primed with just-world statementswere less willing to change lifestyle to reduce carbon footprint General Discussion • Dire messagescan backfire big time → reduces intention to reduce carbon footprint • Fear-based appeals can easily backfire 09_18 Bratanova, Loughnan & Gatersleben (2012) October-04-13 2:18 PM The moral circle as a commonmotivationalcause of cross-situationalpro-environmentalism Introduction • Moral circle is a commonmotivationalsource for engagement in environtamllybeneficial activities • The success of governmentalpolicies depends on public acceptance & support • Need to identify psychological characteristicsthat motivatepro-environmentalbehaviour → 2 characteristics researched are values & identity • Values tend to stay relatively stable. Changes are usually in response to dramatic change in circumstances(ex. socioeconomictransitions) • Attempts to change identity tend to result in resistance & psychological reactance • Moral circle denotes the set of entities considered worthy of moral regard/ treatment ○ More natural entities people feel morallyconcerned for, the moremotivated ↔ ↑engage in activates aimed at protecting environment • High self-important moral identity exhibits a chronically expansive moral circle: more favourable attitudes & act more prosocially towards out-groups • Moral circle can change → moral regard (inclusion) vs. morallyworthy (exclusion) Study 1 • P has to distribute ₤10 to 3 cause (scholarship, environmentalprotection, poverty alleviation) • Attributing moral status to a larger set of natural entities is associated with activities aimed at environmentpreservationreceived initial support • Individuals with more expansive moral circles also feel stronger moral obligation towards a different set of natural entities Study 2 • Focuses more on obligation towards natural entities • People will probably engage in pro-env behaviours if they see that it contributes to environmentalpreservation • Exclusion condition:retained larger set of entities • Inclusion-exclusion manipulation leads to different moral circle sizes, which predicts moral obligation & support for policy, etc. • Intention of pro-env behaviour was predicted by moral circle size only for those who believe it will have a positive impact • Greater support for policy aimed at reducing environmentalpollution General Discussion • Chronically expansive moral circle is positively associated with pro-env activities • Moral circle construct is comparable with pro-env values & identity • Moral circle is flexible → less likely that attempts to expand moral circle would trigger feelings of threat, resistance, psychologicalreaction • At least some individuals may internalize moral obligation to expand moral circle • Limitation:intentions ≠ actual behaviours 09_25 O'Brien (2008) October-04-13 2:19 PM Sustainable Happiness: How Happiness Studies Can Contribute to a More Sustainable Future Introduction • Developmentthat meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generation to meet their own needs • Human pursuit of happiness has positive and adverse impacts, locally, and globally Sustainable Happiness • Policies & behaviours have repercussion on distant lands and people → can have short or long term effects • Happy planet index (HPI): does happiness have to cost the earth? (mean life satisfaction x mean life expectancy / ecologicalfootprint) ○ Underlying hypothesis is that countries has abilities to support long/happy lives while equitable share of resources • Well-being ≠ high level of consuming Happiness, Consumption and Sustainability • "overall appreciation of one's life as-a-whole, how much one likes the life one lives" • If intention is made to pursue happiness or life satisfaction without exploiting others → need to shift our behaviour & policy • Canadian index of well-being: assesses living standards, health, education, civic engagement, communityvitality, time use, arts, culture, ecosystemhealth • Intrinsic value orientation is associatedwith higher levels of subjective well-being ↔ less materialistic& more inclined to engage in environmentallyfriendly behaviours • Possible for individuals to experience high level of subjective wellbeing without excessive consumption (overconsumptionis not the way to happiness x sustainability) • Society drives on erroneousbeliefs that personal wellbeing is tied to production and consumption Healthy People & Communities,and Sustainable Happiness • Positivestates of wellbeing ↔ better physical health • Public health policies could help with that Sustainable Happiness and Liveable Communities • HOW we build our cities (energy use, housing, waste management,transportation,health facilities) • "obesogenic"environment:environmentalfactors that promoteobesity by reinforcing sedentary lifestyles & poor nutrition • ex. most people hate transportation;active people rated their quality in life as higher • ex. international walk to school day → nearly 75% students surveyed prefer to walk/cycleto school regularly Policies for Sustainable Happiness • Created urban infrastructure & public space to give priority to children & those who don't have cars • ex. bus rapid transit system,bicycle path, pedestrian infrastructure • Children are particularly susceptible to poor air quality, traffic fatalities, etc. • Plans in effort to reduce congestion/ pollution & contribute to public health Sustainability and Education • UNESCO: whether education is the problem or solution • Sustainable developmentand sustainability aren't well understood by those in the education • Sustainable developmentand sustainability aren't well understood by those in the education system • Dire messagesmake environmentalchange look inevitable & make individual behavioural change look in sequential • Imperativeto drastically reduce consumptionof non-renewable resource Sustainable Happiness and Education • Aim in education should be to contribute to personal/ collective happiness that does not exploit other people, environment,future generation • Students should learn how to articulate who/what teaches them about happiness and to recognize the relationship between happiness & sustainability Conclusion • Need to be at a national & international level • Challenge: limited by the available choices for sustainable lifestyles and livelihood • Our current pattern is pushing towards environmentalfailure and human suffering 09_25 Uzzell & Rathzel (2009) October-04-13 2:19 PM • Transactionalist approach → individuals are the sum of their social relationships • Examining reciprocity between people & environmentand how they mutually reproduce the material conditions for their existence Introduction • Research in environmentalpsychologists could only give general principles in response to needs of practitioners • There is a dominant notion that economicgrowth and environmentalneeds should be harmonized • Conservationpsychology:"scientific study of the reciprocal relationships between human and nature, with focus on conservationof natural world." • Tend to see nature as external to society("first nature") than seeing it as socially produced/constructed("second nature") • Transformativeenvironmentalpsychology: critical assessment of structures/processesin which people's relationship to environmentis formed & shaped by action of people ○ Often applied & policy oriented, with the goal of changing behaviour of individuals/groups (1) Environmentalpsychology:the loss of context in theorising about behaviour change • Behaviour is not only a produce of rational, deliberative & individual evaluation → values & attitudes are not formed in social/culturalvacuum • Important to tackle cultural/social structures to support practices to achieve behavioural change → values/normsare partially beyond individual control ○ ex. supermarket being built outside of public transport (car), low prices overshadow smaller shop (local business) • Therefore,just alerting people about environmentalproblems isn't enough to change behaviours (3) The effect of a non-contextualisednotion of behaviour on policies of behaviour change • Strategies that focus on consumptionof CO recognizes excessivenature of it → viewed as 2 pursuing ignorant, self-serving consumptionbehaviour • Such polices lead to resistance/ resentment & have unintended/ unpredicted consequences • Alternative: policies that reduce choices may → ex. the green bin project (garbage collection twice a week, green bin collection once a week) • P are only responsible for their immediateenvironmentbut it's hard to see how it is connected with the bigger problem → people carry on with "business as usual" • Coercivemeasures & persuasion may reinforce sense of powerless/ alienation → even if change occurs, it might not generalize to other behaviours (4) Contextualising behaviours: putting production into environmentalpsychology • Attacking consumer behaviours is a bottomsup rather than top down approach (not getting to the actual problem) • Alternative: help society develop sustainable environments,production processes, etc. • The assumption is that production is a neural process that simply responds to demand → producers create/ drive demand! ○ ex. everyoneneeds to eat, but desire for burgers and soda is due to companies promoting these desires • Consumers rarely organize & assert collective pressure → even then, boycottinghas limited effect against the selling • Even if people at the companiescare, they're "restrained by their shareholders" whose goal is to profit • Governmenthas more power (resources,capacity to resist, etc.) • Governmenthas more power (resources,capacity to resist, etc.) • Ecodevelopment→ developmentmodel of the 70's; consists of too much consumption & producing too much waste • Even though sustainability sounds positive and great, it's hard to define. It can be mean anything. → may be a good thing since it's rough definition will cover more representations, thus make it more appealing to a greater range of interests (5) Strong and Weak Sustainability: from consumption to the relations of production and consumption • On one end of the spectrum: everything in nature is replaceable by human-made products → nothing would have to be sustained ○ Nature is seen for its function and for its usefulness for humans • Other end of spectrum:nothing can be replaced → everything has to be sustained ○ Nature is valuable itself, independent of utility for humans • Weak sustainability implies retaining status quo of societal relations which have been responsible for environmental degradation ○ Does not question how production is controlled → little constraint in free market; Consumer not expected to question freedom of companies ○ Would mean substituting dangerous products for less dangerous ones • Strong sustainability implies questioning freedom corporation ○ Demands forms of participation involvescitizens in defining the political processes of societal control (6) A model for Strong Sustainability • Assumption that of consumption & production are two independent processes (6.1) Relations of production • Tendency to talk about 'the economy'as if its neutral entity, existing independently of human actors and being universally same in all society • Many questions arise about the relations (6.2) Relations of consumption • Concept of power relations within sphere of consumption → how consumptionprocesses are part of reproduction of class ○ ex. women, young, old are targeted for particular products that will make them "successful" • Images & cultures within which consuming goods are embedded (6.3) political relations • Should encourage & support users involvementin planning, design, managementand use of the built/natural environment • P are not independent of their social relationships • Commons dilemma → perspectiveof sustainable societyleads to empowerment,self- determination,democracy • Multiple identities means different values ○ ex. Identity as CEO, as citizen, as mother, as person (7) Discussion:transforming environmentalpsychology • Some perspectivesignore structural power that exist in society (class, gender, ethnicity, sexuality, age, etc.) (7.1) Social Production of the Environment • Many people are working in offices (b/c it's a better working condition vs. farm & also a response to the changing industry) → promotesa norm of silence/ compliance (workers have little say in decisions/ discussion at work) • In modern society, P are seen as first and foremostas consumersrather than producers • People change their jobs so often (the norm is to be flexile and less attached to your craft) → weak identification, loyalty,attachment even though the pop'n is spending more time at work than previously • Need to change the way how we see people (not just as workers, shoppers, etc.) (7.2) Investigation of the origins of lifestyles • Strategies used by companies are meant to create social identity connected to consumptionof • Strategies used by companies are meant to create social identity connected to consumptionof specific goods • Need to understand how they work once they're in place, what the forces/practicesthat puts them in place • Can't just cut off consumption → people need to make a living ○ But reducing waste… (8) Conclusion • The current levels of consumption are unsustainable, and governmentaims to change consumption habits • Need to shift to understanding relationship between producing & reducing • Governmentis obsessed with reducing consumption, when we also need to consider the impacts of production habits on the environment 09_30 Heath, Y., & Gifford, R. (2006) October-04-13 2:19 PM FREE-MARKETIDEOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION:The Case of Belief in Global Climate Change • Beliefs about global climate change by members of the general public are not well understood • Pocketsof uncertainty among scientists as to whether global warming actually is occurring • Climate change happens more slowly than other environmentalproblems which makes it hard to notice • Hard to tell the extent of how much is caused by human activity • ~1/2 of sample expect that climate change will happen in the 20-30years ○ They tend to rate it as less serious than ozone depletion, rainforest destruction & water/air pollution • 3 beliefs examined: Likelihood that global climate change exists, whether its caused by human/natural causes, positive/negativeconsequences • 2 proposed construct: support for free-marketideology & environmentalapathy Support for the Free-Market System • Free-marketsystem there is no viable mechanism for preventing overexploitation[of limited natural resources]from occurring • Optimism:those who support free-marketideology are more likely to believe that causes are not human but natural • Egocentric bias: more self-serving to believe that human actions are not causes of global climate change EnvironmentalAttitudes • NEP: new environmentalparadigm; used to measure positive environmentalattitudes • Ecocentric individuals value nature for its own sake and believe nature deserves protectionfor its intrinsic value ○ Should perform ecologicalbehaviours compared to anthrocentric individuals, even when it involves discomfort,inconvenience and expenses that reduces material quality of life ○ The more persons who are environmentallyapathetic will underestimated the risk of global climate change (apathetic correlated with support for free-marketideology) • Anthrocentric individuals believe that nature should be protected because of its value in enhancing quality of life Self-Efficacy • "Self-efficacy of cooperation":reflects the belief that one's cooperativebehaviour has a significant effect on the outcomeof a large group ○ Causally related to rate/ probability of cooperationin social dilemma • Cooperationtends to decreased in large scale social dilemma because P's perception that one's cooperationwill make a difference decrease in a large group The Hypotheses 1. Environmentalapathy & support for free-marketideologywill be negatively associated with the three beliefs of global climate change a. Global climate change is not occurring b. Causes are not human c. Consequences are not negative 2. Ecocentrismwill be positivelyassociated with the three beliefs 3. Environmentalapathy & the support for the free-marketideology will be negatively associated with intention to act 4. Ecocentrismwill predict intentions to act against global change better than anthrocentrism 5. Self-efficacy will explain unique variance over and above other variables 5. Self-efficacy will explain unique variance over and above other variables 6. Knowledge about global climate change will be associatedwith beliefs in global climate change and intention to take ameliorativeaction Method • Belief about global climate change: belief that it's occurring, possible cases, possible consequences • Behavioural intention: intention to take action • Other variables: perceived knowledge, support for free market ideology,environmental attitudes, self efficacy of cooperation,demongraphic information Results • Belief levels: average level of beliefs that global climate change is occurring (M=3.94)is mainly human caused (M=3.78)and will have negative consequences (M=3.83) • Support for free-marketideology was negatively associated with ecocentrism,all three beliefs about global climate change and behavioural intentions Discussion • Consideration variance in lay beliefs about global climate change • Support for free-marketideology indirectly influences disbelief in global climate change, by fostering environmentalapathy EnvironmentalAttitudes • Different dimensions of environmentalattitudes influenced beliefs differently • Ecocentrismwas positivelycorrelated with beliefs about causes and consequences, behavioural intentions, and self-efficacy and negatively correlated with support for the free market ideology and environmentalapathy • Its uncertainty and the gradual, long term manifestation of its possible negative effects • When the negative effect of certain environmentalhazards is not clearly/ immediately apparent, individual may tend to "put it in the back burner" & attend to more relevant, salient worries in their everydaylives PerceivedKnowledge about Global Climate Change • Perceivedknowledge about global climate change was a significant predictor for 2 beliefs about global climate change • This suggests that intentions to make ameliorative action does not necessarily arise from perceived knowledge about global climate change • Perceivedlevel of knowledge about global climate change had almost zero correlation with ecocentrism Intention to Act • Self-efficacy explained most of the variance in behavioural intention, then ecocentrism,and support for free-marketsystem • They must believe that even a small thing one individual can do will make meaningful differences • Belief that global climate change is actually occurring is an important prerequisite to be willing to take action Support for Free Market Ideology • Those who value free market system over environmentalquality tend to believe that global climate change are morenatural than human caused and its consequenceswill not be negative • Those who support free market system,it appears to bee more convenientand self-serving to believe that climate change is natural phenomenon and its consequences will not be negative • Merely presenting the causes of the problem may not be sufficient b/c individuals are likely to interpret the same information differently • Effect of support for free market ideology on beliefs appear indirect, mediated by apathetic orientation towards environment orientation towards environment • Support for free market ideology (value) optimism/ apathetic attitudes • Environmentalproblems can be addressed through technologicalinnovation • Ego-environmentalism(belief that environmentalprotectionefforts do not threaten jobs, limit personal freedom or hurt economy)but not income, strongly predicted support for actions that require a cast outlay for reducing GHG • We should generate "multiple desirable choices" that are sustainable and satisfying for our pursuit of economicprosperity through free market ideology 10_02 Jackson, L.M. (2011) October-01-13 8:21 PM Toward a Wider Lens: Prejudice & Natural World • Environmentaldamage influences both human and animals • Prejudice ↔ less concern for environment ↔ less concern for well-being of animals • Historically, there were debates about whether animals have the same rights as humans EnvironmentalInequality • The disproportional exposure to environmentalcontaminants • e.g., First Nations, immigrants, refugee groups, those with low income • In 1990:25% of popn were of minority groups, yet 40% of those living within 1 mile of hazardous waste sites were of minority groups • Economicfactors: real estates around industries of environmentaltoxins are less costly • Weaker voice in opp
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