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Psyc 391 ch 6.doc

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PSYC 391
Kim Bartholomew

Psyc 391 ch 6 • Primary reason for having surgery soon after birth is to reduce anxiety and uncertainty/unhappiness over gender ambiguity (of parents) o *Protecting the parents?!?! This should not be what they’re trying to protect • The concepts of sex and gender: o Sex generally refers to biological distinctions b/w M and F whereas Gender refers to social and cultural forces (more widely used) o Gender differences referring to personality, interests, roles and behaviours o Sex= set of biological attributes that constitute maleness or femaleness  Genetic sex and anatomical sex, typical dev leads to consistency b/w the 2 but there may occasionally be discrepancy  Genetic sex= type of genetic coding passed along to indiv at time that sperm of biological father meets egg of biological mother • Human cells each w/genes which direct activity and growth of cell, long strands of genes are chromosomes (46 for ppl) rd • 2 chrmsms that make up 23 pair are responsible for influencing the dev of parts of the body that are typically different for M and F (so they’re called Sex Chromosomes) o One looks like an X, other looks like a Y o Genetic female has 2 X chromosomes ini 23 pair o Genetic male has XY  Anatomical sex= organs of the body that are traditionally considered central to defining sex, specifically the genitals and internal organs associated with functioning of the genitals • Y chromosome typically results in the production of male sex hormones (Androgens) o Other tissues develop when androgens aren’t present o Gender: psychological, social and cultural meanings associated with the existence of maleness and femaleness  Specific features and activities associated w/given gender strongly determined by culture  Specific concept developed w/in each culture about ways that biological sex should be expressed  2 aspects of psychological importance: • Assigned gender= label given, usually at birth • Gender identity= basic understanding of self as M or F (results from assigned gender to an extent)  Identity= sense of the characteristics and abilities one possesses, also emotional evaluatioin of one’s attributes (most often positive valuing and deep affection for what one is like) • Self= refers to this cognitive and affective sense of oneself • Children create strong identity incorporating gender (not only recognition of M or F but also psychological acceptance and embracing of group membership) o This understanding of own gender/identity begins around age 2-3 o Primary sources of gender evidence are more readily visible (clothes, hair, participation in certain activities, mannerisms) o A multidimensional model of the many aspects of gender:  Extended multidimensional matrix of gender issues: matrix as a grid framework used to arrange items into categories • In this model gender expressed along 4 dimensions o Constructs (concepts)= types of psychological processes or behaviours affected by the concept of gender w/in a given culture  Consist of gender related concepts (beliefs/stereotypes), identity (self perception of what one is like), preferences, behavioral enactment (overt behavior) o Content areas: biological or categorical sex, activities and interests, personal/social attributes, gender based social rlnshpss, stylistic and symbolic characteristics and values  Each construct expressed across every one of the content areas o Levels of analysis o Time  Beliefs refer to knowledge that indiv’s dev concerning the meaning of gender • In terms of the specific content areas, beliefs may concern knowledge about biological sex (knowledge of physical features like clothing and hairstyles) o Knowledge involves Gender labeling (starts around age 2) where understand features that characterize M or F • Eventually realize that gender assignment based on anatomical sex (most obvious external organs)  Knowledge and stereotypes evolve for area of Activities (play, recreation, work, etc..) • Also dev understanding of Attributes expected of M and F and expected Social Roles and Styles (concerning facial expressions, gestures, movements, etc..) • Value beliefs RE expectation that indiv’s will value and demo allegiance to behaviours and characteristics appropriate for their gender • Gender Roles= expectations shared w/in a culture of how a woman should be/what they should be like o According to social role theory gender roles are Normative (indiv’s Should possess prescriptions) • Identity or Self perception related to gender= o Gender role identity= indiv’s understanding of the extent to which they posses gender related features  Vs gender identity= understanding of whether one is M or F (biological sex) • The bi-polar nature of masculinity and femininity= assume M and F normally to be mutually exclusive (can’t be both) but this w/biological sex o Ppl often extend this to masculinity and femininity w/rejection of overlap o How gender identity develops: assumed to be thru experiences after birth and how they’re treated by others (learning theory)  For intersex was easier to surgically make them girls, and assumed that b/c of physical appearance and how they would be treated that it would all be ok (would be girls)  Diamond and Sigmundsom= gender identity and sexual orientation primarily influenced by biology and child rearing practices w/minimal influence • Say should delay surgery until child has created strong sense of own gender identity o Bipolar opposite dimension for referring to masculinity- femininity (they’re opposite of one another)  Indivs largely have consistent gender role identities that are consistent w/expectations for their biological sex  Ppl emphasize their consistent characteristics and de-emphasize the non consistent ones and thru this maintain their sense of gender identity and masculinity-femininity consistent w/their actual biological sex  Gender role identity: An assessment of actually possessing specific attributes in various gender content areas (traits, preferences, interaction styles), and one’s Overall assessment of being masculine or feminine • Overall sense of masculinity-femininity likely more important in influencing self esteem  Transgenderism=refers to gender roles identities in which males believe they possess substantial levels of feminine characteristics and value these (or vice versa for F) • Transsexualism= other-sex identities, have the deeply held sense that their gender is actually that of the other sex o MtF and FtM o Transsexualism not directly related to sexual orientation, majority of transsexuals are men who feel like women • Transvestites= indiv’s who dress in clothing of the other sex b/c they find it sexually arousing/gratifying OR who fantasize about dressing in other sex clothing in a way that provides sexual pleasure o Transvestic fetishism= cross dressing fantasy or behavior by straight men that’s clinically significant (interferes w/social, occupational, or general functioning) o Transvestism involves element of sexual gratification not found in transsexualism • Transgenderism also to refer to ppl who desire to develop and express social identity of other sex (ie men living as women but don’t want to undergo surgery) o Also for indivs who want to “pass” as other sex (have other ppl believe they are member of other sex)  Gender related preferences • Preferences= types of behaviours and activities in which individuals desire to engage o Often overlap w/identity to great extent (tho not all preferences in awareness/ctrl) o Preferences span the 6 gender related content areas previously mentioned  1 preference would be desire to be biological sex of either M or F (gender identity preference)  preferences for activities/interests (jobs, pastimes), for personality/physical characteristics for self, types of ppl we’re interested in interacting with, desire to display specific gestures/postures/speech styles  Behavioral enactment= final area in which factors associated w/gender exert influence is on observable behavior • Clothing, emphasis of certain features, actions, mannerisms, jobs and friends and hobbies chosen • Aspects of gender: o For gender differences keep in mind:  1-difference b/w groups of indivs (ie M and F)= not all women same height • See gender difference in statistic of averages a lot (ie height of M vs F) • Statistically significant difference=that a difference b/w 2 averages is unlikely to have occurred by chance/accident (tho this doesn’t tell us how big of a difference exists) o D= effect size (size of difference b/w groups) o Meta-analysis= statistical technique of combining results of dif studies to increase reliability of measurement  2-identifying a reliable difference provides absolutely no info about the cause of that dif  3- only those attributes and behaviors for which significant difs have been found are typically discussed o Biological and Categorical attributes  Assigned gender at birth for what genitals appe
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