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Chapter 9

Ch. 9 Deviance

3 Pages

Sociology and Anthropology
Course Code
SA 150
Ann Travers

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SA 150 Ch. 9- deviance
The Social Foundations of Deviance:
1) Deviance varies according to cultural norms. Ex. Different legal drinking ages
at diff. provinces
2) People become deviant as others define them that way. Depends on how others
perceive or respond to other ppls’ activities.
3) Both rule making and rule breaking involve social power. Powerful ppl use
rules to protect their interests. (Marx)
Emile Durkheim: the Functions of Deviance:
1) Deviance affirms cultural values and norms. There can be no justice w/o crime.
2) Responding to deviance clarifies moral boundaries. Ppl draw social boundary
betw. Right and wrong.
3) Responding to deviance promotes social unity. Anniversaries to mourn a
4) Deviance encourages social change. Today’s deviance’s may become
tomorrow’s morality. Ex. Rock and Roll.
Robert Merton’s Strain Theory:
There is limited opportunity, especially among the poor, to get rich. Thus,
ppl may resort to other ways to get rich
Innovation: the attempt to achieve a culturally approved goal(wealth) by
unconventional means (drug sales)
Ritualism: resolve the strain of limited success by abandoning cultural
goals in favour of almost compulsive efforts to live “respectably.”
Retreatism: the rejection of both cultural goals and means so that one, in
effect, drops out. Ex. Alcoholics, drug addicts.
Rebellion: reject both cultural def’n of success and normative means of
achieving it. Also, rebels advocate radical alternatives to the existing social order
(often suggestions are huge political or religious transformations)
Deviant Subcultures (Ohlin and Cloward):
Criminal subcultures: illegal opportunities create these subcultures that offer
knowledge, skills and other resources needed to succeed in unconventional ways.
Conflict subcultures: In highly transient neighborhoods that don’t provide
opportunity, legal or illegal, violence ignites due to frustration and desire for fame
and/or respect.
Retreatist subcultures: alcoholics, and/or drugs.
6 focal concerns of deviant subcultures:
1) Trouble, arises from frequent conflict w/ teachers and police
2) Toughness, the value placed on physical size, strength, and athleticism

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SA 150 Ch 9 devianceThe Social Foundations of Deviance1Deviance varies according to cultural norms Ex Different legal drinking ages at diff provinces2People become deviant as others define them that way Depends on how others perceive or respond to other ppls activities3Both rule making and rule breaking involve social powerPowerful ppl use rules to protect their interests MarxSTRUCTURALFUNCTIONAL ANALYSISEmile Durkheim the Functions of Deviance1Deviance affirms cultural values and norms There can be no justice wo crime2Responding to deviance clarifies moral boundaries Ppl draw social boundary betw Right and wrong3Responding to deviance promotes social unity Anniversaries to mourn a massacre4Deviance encourages social change Todays deviances may become tomorrows morality Ex Rock and RollRobert Mertons Strain TheoryThere is limited opportunity especially among the poor to get rich Thus ppl may resort toother ways to get richInnovation the attempt to achieve a culturally approved goalwealth by unconventional means drug sales
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