STAT 100 Chapter 1: Chapter 1.docx

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Chapter 1 – Where Do Data Come From?
Statistics = science of data
o“art of data” as well because good judgement along with good math make good statistics
oGood judgement partly lies in deciding what you must measure
Individuals – objects described by a set of data. May be people, but they may also be animals or
things
Variable – any characteristic of an individual. Can take different values for different individuals
oNot all are numerical, some are “categorical” and simply place individual into one of
several groups or categories
Bad judgement on choosing variables  data that costs lots of time and money but don’t shed light
on the world
Response – variable that measures an outcome or result of a study
Observational study – observes individuals and measures variables of interest but does not
intervene in order to influence the responses
oPurpose is to describe some group or situation
Sample surveys –surveys some group of individuals by studying only some of its members
oAn important kind of observational study
oPopulation – the entire group of individuals about which we want information
oSample – part of the population from which we actually collect information and is used
to draw conclusions about the whole
Census – sample survey that attempts to include the entire population in the sample
Experiment – deliberately imposes some treatment on individuals in order to observe their
responses. purpose is to study whether the treatment causes a change in the response
oCan give good evidence that a treatment causes a response
oStatistical conclusions hold “on the average” for groups of individuals
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