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# Stats 100 Vocabulary.docx

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Simon Fraser University

Statistics

STAT 100

Derek Bingham

Winter

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Stats 100 Vocabulary1 Individuals are the objects described by a set of data people animals or things2 Variable any characteristic of an individual Can take different values for different individuals3 Observation Study observes individuals and measures variables of interest but does not attempt to influence the responses4 Response is a variable that measures an outcome or result of a study describe some group or situation5 Sample surveys survey some group of individuals by studying only some of its members selected because they represent the larger group6 Population statistical study is the entire group of individuals about which we want information7 Sample is the part of the population from which we actually collect information and is used to draw conclusions about the whole8 Census is a sample survey that attempts to include the entire population in the sample9 Experiment imposes some treatment on individuals in order to observe their responses to study whether the treatment causes a change in the response10 Bias systematically favours certain outcomes11 Convenience sampling selection of whichever individuals are easiest to reach 12 Voluntary response sample by responding to a general appeal writein or callin13 Simple random sample of size n consists of n individuals from the population chosen in such a way that every set of n individuals has an equal chance to be the sample actually selected14 Parameter a number that describes the population It is a fixed number but dont know the actual value15 Statistic is a number that describes a sample often use a statistic to estimate an unknown parameter 16 Bias consistent repeated deviation of the sample statistic from the population parameter in the same direction when we take many samples to reduce bias use random sampling

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