6 May 2012

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Stats 100 Vocabulary

1) Individuals: are the objects described by a set of data. (people, animals or things)

2) Variable: any characteristic of an individual. Can take different values for different individuals

3) Observation Study: observes individuals and measures variables of interest but does not attempt

to influence the responses

4) Response: is a variable that measures an outcome or result of a study (describe some group or

situation)

5) Sample surveys: survey some group of individuals by studying only some of its members,

selected because they represent the larger group

6) Population: statistical study is the entire group of individuals about which we want information

7) Sample: is the part of the population from which we actually collect information and is used to

draw conclusions about the whole

8) Census: is a sample survey that attempts to include the entire population in the sample

9) Experiment: imposes some treatment on individuals in order to observe their responses (to study

whether the treatment causes a change in the response)

10) Bias: systematically favours certain outcomes

11) Convenience sampling: selection of whichever individuals are easiest to reach

12) Voluntary response sample: by responding to a general appeal (write-in or call-in)

13) Simple random sample: of size n consists of n individuals from the population chosen in such a

way that every set of n individuals has an equal chance to be the sample actually selected

14) Parameter: a number that describes the population (It is a fixed number, but don’t know the actual

value)

15) Statistic: is a number that describes a sample (often use a statistic to estimate an unknown

parameter)

16) Bias: consistent, repeated deviation of the sample statistic from the population parameter in the

same direction when we take many samples (to reduce bias, use random sampling)