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ANTH 1010H (15)
Chapter 1

Chapter One What is Anthropology.docx

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ANTH 1010H
Jocelyn Williams

Chapter One: What is Anthropology? Anthropology: The study of differences and similarities, both biological and cultural, in human populations. Anthropology is concerned with typical biological and cultural characteristics of human populations in all periods and in all parts of the world. The study of humankind. Primate: A member of the mammalian order; Primates, divided into the two suborders of prosimians and anthropoids Primatologists: People who study primates Homo Sapiens: all living people belong to one biological species, homo sapiens, which means that all human populations on earth can successfully interbreed. The first Homo sapiens may have emerged by 200,000 years ago The genus Homo was originally classified and distinguished from other hominins by the presence of culture in the form of manufactured tools Culture: The set of learned behaviours, beliefs, attitudes, values, and ideals that are characteristic of a particular society or population Ethnology: The study of how and why recent cultures differ and are similar Prehistoric: In the time before written records Ethnographer: a person who spends time living with, interviewing, and observing a group of people so that he or she can describe their customs Ethnography: A detailed description of aspects of cultural behaviours and customs based on observation; the cultural study of a single cultural group and often the written description of that particular culture Ethnohistorian: An ethnologist who uses historical documents to study how a particular culture has changed over time; they are usually concerned with the history of a people who did not themselves leave written records Cross-Cultural An ethnologist that uses ethnographic data about many societies to test possible explanations Researcher: of cultural variation; they are interested in discovering why certain cultural characteristics may be found in some societies but not in others Cultural Anthropology: the study of cultural variation and universals Linguistics: the study of language; they study changes that have taken place over time, as well as contemporary variation Historical Linguistics: The study of how languages change over time (and usually languages do not have a written form) Structural Linguistics: the study of how languages are constructed; also called descriptive statistics Sociolinguists: The study of cultural and sub-cultural patterns of speaking in different social contexts; they are interested in the social aspects of language, including what people speak about and how they 1 interact conversationally, their attitudes toward speakers of other dialects or languages, and how people speak differently in different social contexts. Cultural Ecologist: A person concerned with the relationship between culture and the physical and social environment Applied Anthropology: The branch of anthropology that concerns itself with applying anthropological knowledge to achieve practical goals, usually in the service of an agency outside the traditional academic setting; aka practising anthropology; applied anthropologists may be trained in any or all of the sub-fields of anthropology Biocultural Model: a holistic approach that recognizes the interaction between biology and culture in human populations Hominins: the group of hominoids consisting of humans and their direct ancestors. It contains at least two genera: Homo and Australopithecus Neandertal: A population of archaic Homo sapiens that lived in Europe and the Middle East about 150,000 to 30,000 years ago; controversy exists about whether they interbred with immigrating modern humans, but they did become extinct while moderns survived Handaxe: a tool or flint or other homogenous material that is shaped by direct percussion of a hammer stone onto the flint to make a bilaterally symmetrical tool 2 Anthropology in Canada - In 1910 Prime Minister Wilfred Laurier established a Division of Anthropology within the Geological Survey (now part of the Canadian Museum of Civilizat
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