Anthropology Chapter 6: Rise of the Genus Homo
Oldowan: The tool industry characterized by simple, usually unifacial core and flake tools.
Tool Industry: A particular style or tradition of making stone tools.
Core: The raw material source (a river cobble or a large flake) from which flakes are removed.
Flake: The stone fragment struck from a core, thought to have been the primary tools of the Oldowan.
Hammerstone: A stone used for striking cores to produce flakes or bones to expose marrow.
Quarrying Site: An archaeological site at which there is evidence that early hominids were obtaining the raw
material to make stone tools
Butchering Site: A place where there is archaeological evidence that early hominids were obtaining the raw
material to make stone tools.
Home Base: Archaeological term for an area to which early hominids may have brought tools and carcasses
and around which their activities were centered.
Supraorbital Torus: Thickened ridge of bone above the eye orbits of the skull; a brow ridge
Angular Torus: A thickened ridge of bone at the posterior angle of the parietal bone
Occipital Torus: A thickened horizontal ridge of bone on the occipital bone at the rear of the cranium
Sagittal Keel: Longitudinal ridge or thickening of bone on the sagittal suture not associated with any muscle
Metopic Keel: Longitudinal ridge or thickening of bone along the midline of the frontal bone
Shovel-shaped Incisors: Anterior teeth which on their lingual surface are concave with two raised edges that make
them look like tiny shovels
Platymeric: A bone that is flattened from front to back.
Platycnemic: A bone that is flattened from side to side.
Calotte: The skullcap, or the bones of the skull, excluding those that form the face and the base on the
Calvaria: The braincase: includes the bones of the calotte and those that form the base of the cranium
but excludes the bones of the face.
Canine Fossa: An indentation on the maxilla above the root of the canine, an anatomical feature usually
associated with modern humans that may be present in some archaic Homo species in Europe
Acheulean: Stone tool industry of the early and middle Pleistocene characterized by the presence of
bifacial hand axes and cleavers. This industry is made by a number of Homo species, including
H. erectus and early H. sapiens
Early Stone Age: Lower Palaeolithic; the earliest stone tool industries including the Oldowan and Acheulean
industries, called the ESA in Africa and the Lower Palaeolithic outside Africa.
Biface: A stone tool that has been flaked on two faces or opposing sides forming a cutting edge
between two flake scars