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Chapter 6

Anthropology Chapter 6.docx

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Trent University
ANTH 1010H
Jocelyn Williams

Anthropology Chapter 6: Rise of the Genus Homo Oldowan: The tool industry characterized by simple, usually unifacial core and flake tools. Tool Industry: A particular style or tradition of making stone tools. Core: The raw material source (a river cobble or a large flake) from which flakes are removed. Flake: The stone fragment struck from a core, thought to have been the primary tools of the Oldowan. Hammerstone: A stone used for striking cores to produce flakes or bones to expose marrow. Quarrying Site: An archaeological site at which there is evidence that early hominids were obtaining the raw material to make stone tools Butchering Site: A place where there is archaeological evidence that early hominids were obtaining the raw material to make stone tools. Home Base: Archaeological term for an area to which early hominids may have brought tools and carcasses and around which their activities were centered. Supraorbital Torus: Thickened ridge of bone above the eye orbits of the skull; a brow ridge Angular Torus: A thickened ridge of bone at the posterior angle of the parietal bone Occipital Torus: A thickened horizontal ridge of bone on the occipital bone at the rear of the cranium Sagittal Keel: Longitudinal ridge or thickening of bone on the sagittal suture not associated with any muscle attachment. Metopic Keel: Longitudinal ridge or thickening of bone along the midline of the frontal bone Shovel-shaped Incisors: Anterior teeth which on their lingual surface are concave with two raised edges that make them look like tiny shovels Platymeric: A bone that is flattened from front to back. Platycnemic: A bone that is flattened from side to side. Calotte: The skullcap, or the bones of the skull, excluding those that form the face and the base on the cranium. Calvaria: The braincase: includes the bones of the calotte and those that form the base of the cranium but excludes the bones of the face. Canine Fossa: An indentation on the maxilla above the root of the canine, an anatomical feature usually associated with modern humans that may be present in some archaic Homo species in Europe Acheulean: Stone tool industry of the early and middle Pleistocene characterized by the presence of bifacial hand axes and cleavers. This industry is made by a number of Homo species, including H. erectus and early H. sapiens Early Stone Age: Lower Palaeolithic; the earliest stone tool industries including the Oldowan and Acheulean industries, called the ESA in Africa and the Lower Palaeolithic outside Africa. Biface: A stone tool that has been flaked on two faces or opposing sides forming a cutting edge between two flake scars Movius Line:
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