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ANTH 1010H (15)
Chapter 3

Chapter 3 Textbook Notes Anthropology.docx

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Trent University
ANTH 1010H
Jocelyn Williams

Chapter 3 Textbook Notes Anthropology What is Archaeology? Prehistoric Archaeology - Prehistory is the time before written records - Prehistory ends when history begins - When the process of domesticating plants and animals began at the end of the Pleistocene, the Mesolithic, or Middle Stone Age, began. When farming became the primary mode of making a living, groups were classified as Neolithic, or New Stone Age Historical Archaeology - All history is written by people, and all history contains some biases, sometimes unconsciously recorded - The archaeology of the Middle East from the time of the Bible is called biblical archaeology, and the study of the time of the pharaohs in Egypt is called Egyptology. In Europe, post-Roman archaeology, that dating between the fifth and fifteenth centuries, is called medieval archaeology, all materials dating between the fifteenth and mid-seventeenth centuries in Europe are considered post-medieval. - Today, most of the archaeology conducted around the world is related to the preservation and management of archaeological resources, a field known as cultural resource management (CRM) and sometimes called heritage resource management. Maritime Archaeology - Maritime archaeology can be divided into at least two major fields, underwater archaeology and nautical archaeology. - While underwater archaeology is very straightforward, nautical archaeology deals with ships, cargos, harbours, anchorages, maritime technology, trade, and the influences that seafaring had on politics, social structure, and military events, along with anything else related to ships and their activities, even if the ships are now on dry land. Key Concepts in Archaeology - The various layers combine to form the stratigraphy of the site - Normative view – the basic working assumption that past behaviour was rational and that people made “good” decisions. It’s known that not all behaviour was rational and that not all decisions were good, but this idea is used as the starting point for investigation - When some sort of inclusive pattern is detected, the entity reflected by that pattern may be called a “culture.” These archaeological cultures are essentially models that may or may not represent actual societies - It is as important to conserve the records of past in
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