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ANTH 1010H (15)
Chapter 5

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ANTH 1010H
Jocelyn Williams

Chapter Five: Human Interaction with the Environment Evolution: The process by which small but cumulative changes in a species can, over time, lead to its transformation; may be divided into two categories: physical evolution (adaptive changes in biological makeup) and cultural evolution (adaptive changes in thought and behaviour) Environment: Every factor that impinges on the life chances of the individual, not merely the obvious constraints of predators, food, and shelter Adaptation: The process by which organisms or populations of organisms make biological or behavioural adjustments that facilitate their survival and reproductive success in their environment Genes: Individual units of hereditary information passed from parent to offspring as discrete particles according to certain regular patterns Ecosystem: The cycle of matter and energy that includes all living things and links them to the non-living Resilience: The ability of an ecosystem to undergo change while still maintaining its basic elements or relationships Stability: The ability of an ecosystem to return to equilibrium after disturbances Habitat: The specific area where a species lives Niche: The environmental requirements and tolerances of a species; sometimes seen as a species’ “profession”
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