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Chapter 3

NURS 2031H Chapter Notes - Chapter 3: Knowledge Translation, Random Assignment, Randomized Controlled Trial


Department
Nursing
Course Code
NURS 2031H
Professor
Ellen Buck McFaden
Chapter
3

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The Research Process: Ask the Right Question, Get the Right Answer
Introduction: The Research Process
Evidence Based Medicine (EBM): health research findings that are based on the
soundest evidence
oRequires a series of steps to be followed in order to arrive at a sound decision:
Analysing the clinical situation
Asking a focused clinical question
Assessing the clinical research
Appraising the best evidence found
Apply the evidence to the problem at hand
Assessing the effectiveness of care based on this evidence
Evidence Based Medicine  Evidence Based Practise (EBP)- when it began to be used in
other health disciplines besides health research
Evidence Based Practise  Evidence-Based Behavioural Practise (EBBP)
oThis involves making decisions about how to promote health or provide care by
not only using the best available evidence but also including practitioner
expertise and other resources
The Role of the Researcher
Study Specific Responsibilities
oSelect a study design – needs to be appropriate for research question
oEnsure that the study is ethically sound – determined by a research ethics board
(REB)
REB is Responsible for reviewing all research studies before they are
conducted
REB may also review:
Standards of professional conduct of the researcher conducting
the study
The laws and regulations that may have relevance on the study
Previous research done in the area that may be bearing on the
study under review
oBegin the data collection phase – the researcher gathers information necessary
to answer research question
oData analysis phase – researcher must be sure to select the types of analyses
that will be best suited for the type of data collected
For quantitative research: conduct that analysis using statistical tests
For qualitative research: adopt a qualitative analysis paradigm
oPrepare study findings – in the form of a report
Providing the final report and budget and financial statements to the
funding bodies will allow them to see that the researcher did what they
set out to do, that there were tangible results, and that any funds that
were allocated to the study were used accordingly
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oDevelop a new research question
Administrative Responsibilities
oEstablish a budget – must be realistic, feasible, and be based on the funds
allocated for the study
Should include:
Cost and number of supplies and pieces of equipment required
Salaries for paid employees
Compensation for participants (If necessary and permissible
within the REB guidelines)
oDevelop a timeline or schedule – closely linked to budgetary process
A clear timeline identifies:
projected start and end dates of the study
Any milestones that need to be met
oRecord keeping – must ensure all records are kept up to date and stored safely
and securely for as long as the REB requires
Records include:
Financial statements
Participant data
Completed data collection forms
oSupervision – of all individuals working on the study
This includes coordination of research team
oComplicacy – of all agency, organizational, and institutional rules, regulations,
policies and procedures
The Research Process: Research Made Easy in 12 Steps
Step 1: identify the research topic, idea, or problem that’s right for you
oWhere to start?
What have been your own experiences and observations?
What does the current research say? – Reviewing the relevant literature
is another good place to start
What’s making news?
What is happening within professional organizations? – societies may
provide statements of emerging issues of concern or priority areas for
research
What type of research is being funded?
How might theory be used and tested?
oWhat to keep in mind:
Something you’re enthusiastic about
Explore new topics as long as the topic has a realistic degree of
complexity
Topic should have a specific topic
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Be prepared to revise a topic if needed
Step 2: the literature search- what’s already out there?
oConduct a literature search to determine what search findings are relevant to
your problem of interest
oWhy should you conduct a literature search?
The ability of the researcher to demonstrate a familiarity with a body of
knowledge
To show the path of prior research and how the current project is linked
to it
To integrate and summarize what is known in an area
To learn from others
Stimulate new ideas
oWhat to know when conducting your literature search:
Serials: publications that are issued on a continuing basis at more or less
regular intervals
Periodicals: resources that are published “periodically”
Journals: periodicals that have a scholarly focus
Peer reviewed/refereed journal: each of the articles in the journal have
been evaluated by a panel of experts in the field prior to being published
oHow should you conduct your literature review:
Select and access a database that is relevant to the topic you are
researching
Search the database for key terms related to your research
Check the results of your search to determine which articles have been
published in peer reviewed journals
Select and retrieve the articles you believe will be helpful for the research
that you are conducting
oThings to consider:
The author’s qualifications
The publisher
Timelines
Accuracy of the information that is posted
Do the sources provide a bibliography or related resources?
Step 3: define the problem
oDefine what it is you want to study by preparing a problem statement – concisely
written phrase that identifies the who, what, when, where that will be the basis
for your study
oWrite in a parsimonious manner – be specific, clear, concise
Focus on the scope and search parameters with respect to the review of
the literature
Allow for the selection of an appropriate study design
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