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PSYC 1020H (95)
Chapter 4

Chapter 4. The Brain

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Trent University
PSYC 1020H
Wolfgang Lehmann

The Brain Source of Mind and Self Neuropsychologists and neuroscientists study the brain and the rest of the nervous system to gain a better understanding of behaviourThey concern themselves with biological foundations of consciousness perception memory emotion stress and mental disorders of everything humans can feel and doThe Nervous SystemThe function is to gather and process information produce responses to stimuli and coordinate the workings of different cellsIt is divided into two main parts central nervous system and the peripheral outlying nervous system The Central Nervous SystemReceives processes interprets and stores incoming sensory information about tastes sounds smells colour pressure on skin state of internal organs etcSends out messages to the muscles glands and internal organsHas two parts the brain and the spinal cordSpinal cord an extension of the brain runs from the base of the brain down the center of the back and is protected by a column of bones the spinal column acts as a bridge between the brain and the parts of the body below the neckSpinal reflexes are automatic and require no conscious effort as nerve impulses send a message to the spinal cord which sends out a command via the other nerves Reflexes can sometimes be influenced by thoughts and emotions because the neural circuits underlying the spinal reflexes are linked to neural pathwaysSome reflexes can be brought under conscious control The Peripheral Nervous SystemHandles the central nervous systems input and output and contains all portions of the nervous system outside the brain and the spinal cord down to the nerves in the fingers and toesSensory nerves carry messages from special receptors in the skin muscles and other internal and external sense organs to the spinal cord which sends them to the brain put us in touch with the outside world and the activities within our bodiesMotor nerves carry orders from the central nervous system to muscles glands and internal organs they enable us to move and cause glands to contract and secrete substances including hormonesPeripheral nervous system can be divided into two parts somatic nervous system and autonomic nervous system 1 Somatic Nervous System
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