PSYC 1020H Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Naturalistic Observation, Confirmation Bias, Criterion Validity

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Theory/hunch hypothesis predictions with operational definitions evidence. Theory- an organized system of assumptions and principles that purports to explain a specified set of phenomena and their interrelations. Hypothesis- a statement that attempts to predict or to account for a set of phenomena; scientific hypotheses specify relations among events or variables and are empirically tested. Confirmation bias- the tendency to look for or pay attention only to information that confirms one"s own belief: openness- no secrecy, free flow of ideas, disclosure. Other scientists must be able to replicate and verify the results. These principles correspond to critical thinking guidelines. Peer review, where scientists submit their results to professional journals, which send findings to experts in the field before deciding to publish them, ensures that the work lives up to accepted scientific standards. Representative sample- a group of individuals, selected from a population for study, which matches the population on important characteristics such as age and sex.

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