Development Over Lifespan
By Monika A.
Developmental Psychologist: studies psychological and cognitive changes across the
lifespan, and how these are affected by a person's genetic predispositions, culture,
circumstances, and experiences.
Socialization is the process by which children learn the rules and behaviour expected
of them by society.
Harmful Influences that can cross the placental barrier:
I. German Measles (rubella)
II.Xrays or other radiation and toxic chemicals such as lead
III. Cigarette smoking
IV. Sexually transmitted diseases
V. Regular consumption of alcohol
VI. Drugs other than alcohol
Teratogen an agent that interferes with normal embryonic development.
Attachment Theory Describes the relatively stable pattern of relationships that one
forms from birth to death. (secure attachment, anxious attachment, and disorganized
attachment are some attachment styles). John Bowlby
Contact Comfort In primates, the innate pleasure derived from close physical
contact; it is the basis of the infant's first attachment. Margaret and Harry Harlow
Separation Anxiety the distress that most children develop, at about six to eight
months of age, when their primary caregivers temporarily leave them with strangers.
Strange Situation experimental method devised by Mary Ainsworth to study the
nature of the attachment between mothers and babies.
Factors Promoting Insecure Attachment
I. Abandonment and deprivation in the first two years of life.
II. Parenting that is abusive, neglectful, or erratic because the parent is chronically
irresponsible or depressed.
III. The child's own genetically influenced temperament
IV. Changing, stressful circumstances in the child's family.
Parentese the adult use of baby talk, using pitch that is higher and more varied than
usual and exaggerating intonation and emphasis on vowels.
It helps babies learn the melody and rhythm of their native language.
Telegraphic Speech A child's first word combinations, which omit (as a telegram
did) unnecessary words.
Object Permanence The understanding, which develops throughout the first year,
that an object continues to exist even when you cannot see it or touch it.
Operations in Piaget's theory, mental actions that are cognitively reversible.
Egocentric Thinking seeing the world from one's own point of view only, the
inability to take another person's perspective.
Conservation The understanding that the physical properties of objects such as the
number of items in a cluster or the amount of liquid in a glasscan remain the same
even when their form or appearance changes.
Current Views of Cognitive Development
1. Cognitive Abilities develop in continuous, overlapping waves rather than
discrete steps or stages
2. Children understand far more than Piaget gave them credit for - and some
adults understand far less
3. Preschoolers are not as egocentric as Piaget thought.
4. Cognitive development is spurred by the growing speed and efficiency of
5. Cognitive development is greatly affected by a child's culture.
Theory of mind: A system of beliefs about the way one's own mind and the minds of
others work, and of how individuals are affected by their beliefs and feelings.
Learning to be Good
Power Assertion a method of child rearing in which the parent uses punishment and
authority to correct the child's misbehaviour.
Induction a method of child rearing in which the parent appeals to the child's own
resources, abilities, sense of responsibility, and feelings for others in correcting the
Gender Identity the fundamental sense of being male or female, it is independent of
whether the person conforms to the social and cultural rules of gender.
Gender Typing the process by which children learn the abilities, interests, and
behaviours associated with being masculine or feminine in their culture.
Sex physical differences
Gender learned differences
Intersex Conditions formerly known as hermaphroditism, it is a condition occurring in
~ every 2000 births, in which chromosomal or hormonal anomalies cause a child to be
born with ambiguous