PSYC 2700H Chapter Notes - Chapter 11: Social Learning Theory, Social Exclusion
Aggression (intentional beh. aimed at causing either physical or psychological pain) Hostile aggression (aggression stemming from feelings of anger and aimed at inflicting pain) Instrumental aggression (aggression as a means to some goal other than pain) o. Thantos (an instinctual drive toward death, leading to aggressive actions) o. According to freud, aggressive energy must come out or it will build or produce illness o. Argue that aggression is genetically programmed into men for 2 reasons: To help establish dominance over other males, leading women to prefer them as mates. Studies on animals show that aggression is both instinctual and learned o. Some species are more aggressive than others (chimpanzees vs. bonobos) o. The environment of rearing may be important (cat raised with rat) o. Human cultures vary widely in their degree of aggressiveness o. In a given culture, levels of aggression may change over time with changing social conditions (iroquois) o.