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Chapter 13

PSYC 3610H Chapter Notes - Chapter 13: Reinforcement

Course Code
PSYC 3610H
Shawn Carter

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Event that when presented immediately after a beh., causes that beh to decrease in frequency
(aversive stimuli)
Principle of punishment: if in a situation a person engages in a beh. that is followed immediately by a
punisher, then the person is less likely to do the same thing again in a similar situation
Beh. Modification Vs. General Public View
Behavior Modification View
o Punishment should be immediate
o Technical word- application of immediate consequences to decrease behavior
General Public View
o Should involve retribution
o Should be used as a deterrent for potential wrong doers
Behavior mod. View should be used sparingly to decrease or eliminate undesirable beh.
Specific Types of Punishers
Pain inducing punishers (physical punishers, activate pain receptors, unconditioned punishers)
Reprimands (verbal reprimands, fixed stare, firm grasp, conditioned punishers)
Time outs (moving a person to a less reinforcing situation. Exclusionary removing for a short time
from situation. Non-exclusionary remains in situation but receives less reinforcement)
Response cost (removal of specified amount of reinforcer)
Increasing the Effectiveness of Punishment
Increase stimuli for positive, alternative beh.s
Minimize the cause of undesirable beh.s
Select an appropriate punisher (more intense better)
Adding an antecedent to punisher
Delivering the punisher (delivered immediately after, not paired with positive reinforcement)
Should Punishment be Used?
May elicit aggressive beh.
Can produce undesirable emotional side effects (crying, fear)
Can cause escape and avoidance behaviors
Children may learn to apply it to others through modeling of punishment
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