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Chapter 10

PSYC 3610H Chapter 10: B-CH.10


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 3610H
Professor
Shawn Carter
Chapter
10

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CH. 10
Fading
Gradual change over consecutive trials of a stimulus that controls a response so that the response
eventually occurs to a partially changed or completely new stimulus
Process of slowly removing prompts after behavior is established
Useful when stimulus exerts strong control of a response to be taught to occur to some other stimulus
Advantages over trial and error:
o errors consume time
o if errors occur it tends to occur many times, even though its being extinguished
o non-reinforcement of errors produces emotional side effects
Shaping is more of a reinforcement strategy (consequence), fading is the motivating strategy
(antecedent)
Dimensions of Stimuli for Fading
Fading occurs along dimensions of stimuli
Dimension: any characteristic that can be measured on some continuum
Fading can occur across specific stimulus dimensions and across changes in general situation or settings
o Ex. physical structure of room; number of other people present
Types of Prompts
Instructor-Behavior Prompts
o Physical guidance, gestures, modeling, verbal (using words as hints)
Environmental Prompts
o Environmental (rearranging the physical surroundings)
Extra Stimulus vs Within Stimulus Prompts
o Extra (adding another stimulus to make a correct response more likely)
o Within (making the SD or S more noticeable and easier to discriminate)
Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Fading
1. Choosing the final desired stimulus (FDS)
2. Choosing the starting stimulus prompt (stimulus that reliably evokes the desired beh.)
3. Choosing the fading steps
Guidelines for Effective Application of Fading
1. Choose final desired stimulus
2. Set an appropriate reinforcer
3. Choose the starting stimulus and fading steps
4. Put plan into effort
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