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MGT 3640 (2)
Chapter 8&18

Chapter 8 & 18 Culture and Leadership Developing Intercultu..
Chapter 8 & 18 Culture and Leadership Developing Intercultural Communicative Competence

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School
University of Lethbridge
Department
Management
Course
MGT 3640
Professor
Luis Escobar
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 8 & 18: Culture and Leadership / Developing Intercultural Communicative Competence March-07-13 1:45 PM Different Conceptions of Leadership  American and European theories o Most assume that leadership has to do with an individual intentionally exerting influence on others to structure the relationships in an organization o Definitions differ as to do with how the influence is exerted and the outcome of the attempt to influence o The manager is often seen as the embodiment of stability within an organization, the leader as one who ensures the success of the organization. Management vs. Leadership  Leadership is about creating a vision, what direction, motivating and inspiring.  Management is about controlling and organizing. The Leader and Corporate Culture  Mechanisms used by a leader to implant and maintain corporate culture (Schein) o What the leader considers important and pays attention to what must be measured and controlled o The way a leader reacts to difficult situations/crises o The priorities set when allocating resources o Examples set by a leader o Criteria used to allocate rewards and status as well as to reinforce desired behaviors o Criteria used for recruitment, selection, promotion, and dismissal  Routines/habits established by a leader may be difficult to break if there is a need for change in response to a dynamic environment  Managers may not recognize the need for change and blame the environment for the change in fortunes  The leader must re-assert his position, instigate changes to revitalize the company, or hand over the reins to a successor Scientific Theories Involving Leadership  Scientific leadership o Standard methods for doing a job, the worker is not required to think, only the leader o The result: Bureaucratic organization  Carefully designed hierarchy of authority, with clearly defined responsibilities  Specialized functions, information, and control is centralized  Uniform application of standard rules and regulations  Trait approach o Some people have traits and skills for leadership  High intelligence  Considerable verbal fluency  Overall knowledge  Considerable initiative involving energy, ambition, and persistence  Height: tallness implies authority o Leaders have specific traits that followers appreciate and recognize  The human factor o Psychological and human factors identified relating to social norms and non-economical rewards o Attempts made to marry the scientific and human approaches by focusin on the role of the decision-makers o To operate successfully, leaders need to find a compromise between rational, goal-oriented behavior and non-rational behaviour among an organization's employees.  Theories X and Y o A leader needs  To remain task-oriented to ensure effective performance of the organization  Be relationship-oriented leader to ensure greater satisfaction among subordinates o Theory X  Results-driven, has little interest in human issues or the worker's morale  Workers do not enjoy work, they do it because they have to.  They could be opportunistic, which could be advantageous. o Theory Y  Wants employees to participate in decision making and problem solving  Uses their creativity to solve problems and further the success of the organization  Contingency Theory o Leadership effectiveness if the result of interaction between the style of the leader and the characteristics of the working environment. Characterized by 3 factors:  Leader-member relationship: degree of confidence, trust, respect  Task structure: extent to which goals, procedure, and guidelines need to be spelled out to the workers  Position power: extent to which the leader or the group holds the power  Z Theory (Ouchi) o Focuses on the attitudes and responsibilities of subordinates o Reflects basic concept found in Japan that all employees share a collective responsibility for their company's fate o Individuals are encouraged to develop their potential within the company: are expected to function (with training) in different positions o The theory has had an enormous impact on views of management in the US o Human-driven approach that drive consensus  The New Leadership o Transformational leader  Creates, communicates, and embodies a vision which can influence changes in the attitudes and assumptions of subordinates  Inspires, ch
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