Chapter 1 Textbook Notes

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University of Lethbridge
Political Science
POLI 2210
Peter Mc Cormick

Chapter 1 : The study of Politics 2/9/2013 11:03:00 PM - Model of the political System  Needs (individuals ) – Demands (Advocacy Groups) --- Issues (parties and elections) --- Executive – Bureaucracy – legislature – judiciary. – Outputs.  Approaches o Pluralism  Closest to democratic Ideal  Variety of people, most not interested, but if they feel overlooked by gov’t will mobilize and activate their resources.  Power widely dispersed  Individuals can employ resources and organize groups.  Authorities compromise  Different policy areas = Different Groups  Increasingly replacing individual and party activity. o Public Choice  Assumes Canada is a democracy  Bargaining process – Politicians work for votes  Respond to interests repress. Most votes  Focus on undecided voters  Maximize publicity of success – minimize of failures.  Take credit for only good  Timing  “rational choice” – Politicians and bureaucracy, authorities and advocacy groups, authorities and media. o Class Analysis  Neo Marxism  Bourgeoisie control stuff – make sure it leads to their accumulation of wealth. 1  Dependance of state on capitalist system, shape values, provide personnel and funds, organize pressure groups  Petite bourgoise – new middle class and working class must be somewhat accommodated to legitimate capitalism  Or coercion  Really just a disguise  Powerful corporations and int. organizations o State Centered Apprpach  State largely autonomous  Authorities – policies – public interest  Polticians rely on bureacrocy for advice  To maximize authority : internal generation of info and maximize jurisdiction, discretion and financial resources.  Manip. Or coercion if necessary o Globalization  Gov’t must respond to external actors.  Gov’t constrained by international organizations and agreements  International branches more active than domestic  Citizens interact with citizens in other states to protect common interest.  Neo liberalism – hey day passed but still influential because of transmission of ideas and ideologies.  Softwood Lumber – Us wants Canada capped 2 International Foundations and the Evolution of the State 2/9/2013 11:03:00 PM o 1550s and 1600 France and Britain colonized parts of territory – Periodically fought each other over NA claims o France got Permanent new france/ quebec in early 1600s, HBC got ruperts land around Hudsons bay, and Britain got nova scotia and newfoundland by 1713 treaty of Urecht. o Britain conquered Quebec 1759 battle of the plains of Abraham – lad to Quebec trying to retain distinctive character (part of 7 years war) o In addition to Quebec, Britain gained PEI, Cape Breton, New Brunswick by treaty of paris  France only had Saint Pierre and Miquelon  Constitutional Developments Canada Maritimes 1758 Nova Scotia assembly – First elected Assembly 1759 British conquest of QC 1763 Royal Proclamation  – British Quebec, and protect interests of aboriginal ppls. o British was English, and non agricultural  Didn’t implement language and religion on QC! 1773 PEI assembly 1774 QC act - French civil law and British Criminal law - RC freedom of Relig. And could be appointed to council 1 1784 NB assembly  1791 Const. Act   In response to Loyalists in Ont. And award loyalty of French  Upper and lower Canada. Each had : a gov, executive council, appointed leg. Council, locally elected assembly  Lower Canada- Appointed mostly Anglophones and assembly of francophones  Upper Canada (mostly English) provided british civil law  - evolved into cabinet, leg, council senate.  1791 all colonies representative gov. 1837 Rebellions – due to Britain wanting governor not local assemblies to do its will. Led by William Lyon Mackenzie King (upper) and Louis Joseph Papineau (lower) 1839 Durham Report – blueprint for solving problems of assembly-executive relations - resp. government reccomendations - Executive branch maintain confidence of local assembly - Governor agent of British government in imperial matters, but followed the advice of colonial 2 authorities in local matters. 1840 Act of union 1 1848 res. Gov. (other provinces 1848 resp. gov (NS and like BC got responsible gov. as the y NB) joined confederation. ) 1878 BNA (Const. act 1867)  1776 - American independence o French neutral, Little anti English sentiment in Canada – lots of immigrants to new Brunswick, lead to them separating from NS in 1784 and creation of own assembly  Why Confederation : o Protect states from americans (individual provinces felt vulnearable) – no more british protection o Economic, (wanted free trade) political (double majority), and military o In 1960s NB, NS and PEI began considering Maritime Union  1864 Charlottetown Conference – idea of larger union put up for debate  quebec conference later that year – where confed. was agreed on  1866 fine tuned with PEI and NFL temp. on sidelines  BNA/ Const act 1867 – QC, Ont (colony of anada ) NSC and NB  Louis Riel inspired Ruperts land – Manitoba added in 1870, BC 1871, PEI 1873. 1905 AB and sask from NWT, newfoundland was added in 1949. And 3 semi autonomus :Yukon, NWT, and Nunavut o British Parliamentary vs. American Const. o Canada 3  Governor General, advised by PM and cab, advised by Bureacrocy PM and Cabinet sit in and are responsible to H of C, advised by senate  Judiciary Separate - can change things in regard to fed prov, but otherwise quite restricted. o American o President adviced by cabinet and Bureacrcy o House of representitives and senate make up legislature and involve president o Judiciary is supreme court. o More power in Hof R and Senate o Supreme court can overturn Legislation Canadian and American Federalism  Canada o Federation – division of powers between central and prov. o JA Macdonald – wanted unitary with almost all federal powers – Quebec and Maritimes concerned about culture, accepted Federalism o Federalism means neither is subordinate o CHANGE – Charter of rights and freedoms 1982  Added to the scope of judicial review with respect to the federal provdincial division of powers by importing American style judicial authority in the area of protecting individual rights and frredoms. Courts could disallow federal or prov. Legislation and other gov. actions that violated const. either in terms of division of powers or charter of rights. Principles of Can. Constitution  Resp. Gov  Federalism  Judicial Review  Const. Monarchy 4  Rule of Law.  Democracy o Canada is a const. Monarchy Road to Soveirghny  Britain appointed GG  Power of GG to reserve Can. Leg. For approval of British Cabinet.  Power of BC to disallow Can. Leg  British Parliament could amend bna act  Abritrary extension to Can. Of imperial legislation  British leg. Paramount if in conflict with Canadian  Can. Couldn’t pass leg. With extra territorial effect  BJC canada’s final court of appeal  British controlled canada’s foreign and trade policy o WW1 Canada made major contirubiton to war efforts o Imperial war cabinet 1917 – policy making in exchange for war efforts o Paris Peace conference, and memebrs of league of nations. o 1919 canada had intern. Status  1919 Member of League of Nations  1926 Galfour Declaration – Imperial conference confers autonomy on dominions  1931 Statute of Westminster confirms independence from Britain  1949 (criminal cases 1933) – Supreme court final court of appeal  1982 – Made- in – Canada constitutional amending policy Changing Role of state  Before 1900 Negative state, after positive state  Early postitive state : Mothers allowances, minimum wage laws, old age pensions, pulic protection of children o Post WW1 o Great Depression o Second WW 5 o Keynsian economics – normal ppl had rights to education, leath care, housing, labor standards and social services – prompted by unionized workers o By 1950 canada had welfare state and gov. was involved in private- sector economy – bank of Canada interest rates, countercyclical budgeting for expenditure and taxation policies o Mid 1980s – troubleseome debts – ppl wanted less gov. st intervention. 21 Cent. Neo-liberalism or Neo- Conservatism Pre 1900 laissez-faire o 2000s public demands for more services o 2009-2010 Huge deficits – prepared to conitunue o 6 Regionalism 2/9/2013 11:03:00 PM Geography  Physiographic Regions  Transportation and Communication systems o Great lakes st. larence, th th o Railways 19 and 20 C – especially confederation settlement of 1860s ad 1870s  Maritimes need Itercolonial Ralway  BC persuaded in 1871 by transcontintental link within ten years  John A macdonald CPR 1885 (4 yrs behind)  CPR – high rates (monopoly cause)  1919-1923 – crown corporation CB – service to isolated parts AND benefit to background capitalist  1877-78 VIA rail – passengers - Chretien privatized CN – Mulroney discontinued half VIA routes 1990s  Early 20 thC – AUTOMOBILES!  1949 – Trans Canada highway Ottawa paid half the cost – completed 1962  1997 PEI confederation bridge  CD howe transpcanada airlines 1937 - Mulroney orivatized – no public policy pupose  Trans canda pipeline  CRTC  CBC  Telesat – privatized 1987 by Mulroney – submarine and satellite  Teleglobe  Pop Distribution T  Toronto Ottawa Montreal triangle  Core periphery analysis  Ont. And Quebec 62 percent combined, 1  Ontario – 38.8 Quebec 23.2, B 13.2, AB 10.8, Manitoba, 3.6, Sask 3.1, NS 2.8, NB 2.2, NFL/LAB 1.5, PEI 0.4, NWT, 0.1, Yukon 0.1, Nunavut, 0.1  Economy:  Atlantic :fishing, not prosperous  Quebec, farming, mining forestry – more sophisticated than atlantic in sophisticated manufacturing: Chemicals, Aeronautics, electronics, oharmaceuticals, transporation equipment.  Ontario – Most diversified, among richest until 2008 (economic meltdown – have not status). Produces half of Canadian total  Prairie Region  Agriculture  Alberta;s oil and gas – AB richest by almost any measure Sask has Potash and Uranium, AB has coal. Manitoba Nickell copper zinc Some manufacturing primary industry  BC  Forestry, mining (natural gas, copper, coal), heavy reliance on exports, hydroelectricity, Forestry manufacturing  North  Mining – Gold rushes of 1980s (Dawson City) and 1930s (Yellowknife)  Oil and natural gas  Aborignal claims  US interested in petroleum interests  Regional Ecoomic Demands  Provincial government  Canadian wheat board 2  Historic Regional Conflicts  Ownership of Natural Resources  Tarrifs (central Canada at etent of prairies – west sent farmers to H of C in 1920s)  Transportation  Banking – west protested aainst national banking policy - lack of competition and wouldn’t collapse  Headquarters montreal or Toronto  Atlantic Provinces  Many of the same conflicts as west proud and prosperous in 1867 , economies declined due to maritime technology. Preferred to blame federal economic
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