AUPSY102 Chapter 7: MemoryCognitionPSY263-ChapterSeven

5 Pages
Unlock Document

Augustana Faculty - Psychology
Katharine Bailey

Chapter 7: Learning as Preparation for Retrieval Learning as Preparation for Retrieval: ● Retrieval methods ○ Recall​ - what was the name of your 10th grade science teacher? ○ Recognition​ - was it Miller? Context-Dependent Learning: ● A pattern of data in which ​materials learned in one setting are well remembered​ when the person returns to that ​same setting,​ but are less well remembered in other settings ○ Our retrieval works more efficiently when we are tested in the same setting in which we learned in (familiarity, comfort, etc.) ■ Setting includes: scent, noise level, room, temperature ● Context reinstatement - a procedure in which a person is led to the same mental and emotional state he or she was in during a previous event; can often promote accurate recollection of that event ● Encoding specificity​ - the tendency, when memorizing, to place in memory both the materials to be learned and also some amount of the context of those materials (setting) as a result, there materials will be recognized as familiar, later on, only if the materials appear again in similar context ○ Tells us that what you encode is specific to physical stimulus ​and​ context ○ People learn the ​whole rather than the parts The Memory Network: ● Learning​ involves the creation/strengthening of memory connections ○ Connections serve as retrieval paths ● Nodes​ - an individual unit within an associative network ○ In a scheme using ​local representations​ nodes represent single ideas or concepts ○ In a scheme using ​distributed representations​ ideas or concepts are represented by a pattern of activation across a wide number of nodes ● Nodes are tied together via connections called ​associations ​or​ associative links ○ Functional connections that are hypothesized to link ​nodes​ within a mental network or detectors​ within a detector network; these associations are often hypothesized as ​carriers of activation from one node/detector to the next Spreading Activation: ● Nodes become ​activated​ when t​ nput signal​ is strong enough ● As more and more activation arrives - the ​activation level​ for that node ​increases ○ Activation level​ - a measure of the current status for a node or detector ● Once activation level reaches the node’s ​response threshold​ the node will ​fire ○ Response threshold​ - the quantity of information or activation needed to trigger a response ○ Fire​ - signal is transmitted down the axon which causes the release of NT’s to signal the next node ● Subthreshold activation​ - will ​not​ trigger a response, however it is important because it can accumulate, leading eventually to an ​activation level​ that exceeds threshold ○ Accumulation of activation signals that eventually leads to a response being triggered is called ​summation ● Spreading activation ​- a process through which activation travels from one ​node​ to another via associative links​; as each node is activated, it serves as a source for further activation, spreading onward through the network Retrieval Cues: ● Retrieval is easier when clues or hints are used, this activates more than one pathway and should theoretically aid you to reach the answer faster Semantic Priming: ● Lexical-decision task​ - participants shown a series of letter sequences and asked to decide if they are words or not ○ When shown two words at the same time there were four options ■ Word-word ■ Word-nonword ■ Nonword-word ■ Nonword-nonword ○ When the words were related (bread-butter) response time was quicker because association pathways allowed the answer to be recalled quicker ■ When thinking about bread you think about other things like butter, jam, sandwich etc. that would be associated ● Semantic priming​ - a process in which activation of an idea in memory causes activation to spread to other ideas related to the first meaning ○ Repetition priming ○ Response time is faster when priming takes place Different Forms of Memory Testing: ● Recall​ - a task of retrieval in which you are to come up with the answer by yourself ○ What is your grandpa’s first name? ○ Depends heavily on memory connections ● Recognition​ - a task a retrieval where the answer(s) are provided and you must choose the correct one ○ Is it Paul, Dave, or George? ○ Depends more on familiarity and source memory ● Source memory​ - a form of memory that enables a person to recollect the episode in which learning took place or the time and place in which a particular stimulus was enco
More Less

Related notes for AUPSY102

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.