AUPSY102 Chapter 7: MemoryCognitionPSY263-ChapterSeven
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Department
Augustana Faculty - Psychology
Course
AUPSY102
Professor
Katharine Bailey
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 7: Learning as Preparation for Retrieval Learning as Preparation for Retrieval: ● Retrieval methods ○ Recall​ - what was the name of your 10th grade science teacher? ○ Recognition​ - was it Miller? Context-Dependent Learning: ● A pattern of data in which ​materials learned in one setting are well remembered​ when the person returns to that ​same setting,​ but are less well remembered in other settings ○ Our retrieval works more efficiently when we are tested in the same setting in which we learned in (familiarity, comfort, etc.) ■ Setting includes: scent, noise level, room, temperature ● Context reinstatement - a procedure in which a person is led to the same mental and emotional state he or she was in during a previous event; can often promote accurate recollection of that event ● Encoding specificity​ - the tendency, when memorizing, to place in memory both the materials to be learned and also some amount of the context of those materials (setting) as a result, there materials will be recognized as familiar, later on, only if the materials appear again in similar context ○ Tells us that what you encode is specific to physical stimulus ​and​ context ○ People learn the ​whole rather than the parts The Memory Network: ● Learning​ involves the creation/strengthening of memory connections ○ Connections serve as retrieval paths ● Nodes​ - an individual unit within an associative network ○ In a scheme using ​local representations​ nodes represent single ideas or concepts ○ In a scheme using ​distributed representations​ ideas or concepts are represented by a pattern of activation across a wide number of nodes ● Nodes are tied together via connections called ​associations ​or​ associative links ○ Functional connections that are hypothesized to link ​nodes​ within a mental network or detectors​ within a detector network; these associations are often hypothesized as ​carriers of activation from one node/detector to the next Spreading Activation: ● Nodes become ​activated​ when t​ nput signal​ is strong enough ● As more and more activation arrives - the ​activation level​ for that node ​increases ○ Activation level​ - a measure of the current status for a node or detector ● Once activation level reaches the node’s ​response threshold​ the node will ​fire ○ Response threshold​ - the quantity of information or activation needed to trigger a response ○ Fire​ - signal is transmitted down the axon which causes the release of NT’s to signal the next node ● Subthreshold activation​ - will ​not​ trigger a response, however it is important because it can accumulate, leading eventually to an ​activation level​ that exceeds threshold ○ Accumulation of activation signals that eventually leads to a response being triggered is called ​summation ● Spreading activation ​- a process through which activation travels from one ​node​ to another via associative links​; as each node is activated, it serves as a source for further activation, spreading onward through the network Retrieval Cues: ● Retrieval is easier when clues or hints are used, this activates more than one pathway and should theoretically aid you to reach the answer faster Semantic Priming: ● Lexical-decision task​ - participants shown a series of letter sequences and asked to decide if they are words or not ○ When shown two words at the same time there were four options ■ Word-word ■ Word-nonword ■ Nonword-word ■ Nonword-nonword ○ When the words were related (bread-butter) response time was quicker because association pathways allowed the answer to be recalled quicker ■ When thinking about bread you think about other things like butter, jam, sandwich etc. that would be associated ● Semantic priming​ - a process in which activation of an idea in memory causes activation to spread to other ideas related to the first meaning ○ Repetition priming ○ Response time is faster when priming takes place Different Forms of Memory Testing: ● Recall​ - a task of retrieval in which you are to come up with the answer by yourself ○ What is your grandpa’s first name? ○ Depends heavily on memory connections ● Recognition​ - a task a retrieval where the answer(s) are provided and you must choose the correct one ○ Is it Paul, Dave, or George? ○ Depends more on familiarity and source memory ● Source memory​ - a form of memory that enables a person to recollect the episode in which learning took place or the time and place in which a particular stimulus was enco
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