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Ch 2: Components of Matter

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Yoram Apelblat

2: The Components of Matter 2.3 Dalton’s Atomic Theory Postulates of the Atomic Theory 1. Atoms make up matter, which can’t be created or destroyed 2. Elemental atoms can’t be converted; forming different substances involving the recombination of atoms 3. Atoms of one element = similar; of different elements = different 4. Specific ratio of atoms of different elements = compounds 2.4 The Observations that led to the Nuclear Atom Model Discovery of the Electron and Its Properties  Cathode rays: stream of electrons o Cathode = negative (NEGATIVE CAT), Anode = positive o Straight line/ bent in magnetic field/ towards positive plate in electric field OBSERVATION CONCLUSION 1. Bends in mag. field Consists of charged particles 2. Bends toward positive plate in electric Consists of negative particles field 3. Ray = identical regardless of cathode usParticles found in all matter  1897 – Thomson’s charge to mass ratio o Weight of electron implied that atom = divisible into smaller particle  1909 – Milikan’s oil drop experiment o Experiments showed charge of droplets always multiple of a minimum charge o Figured out mass to be 9.109E-28 g = 9.109E-31 kg Discovery of the Atomic Nucleaus  Thomson’s proposed plum pudding model  Rutherford’s gold foil experiment o Shot beams of particles at thing sheet of gold foil -> sometimes particles would bounce back o Discovery of the nucleus! 
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