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HIST498 (2)


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Bryan Hogeveen

1 2 Bizarro by Dan Piraro London dispersion forces (LDF) All molecules and atoms have London dispersion forces. London dispersion forces are generally weak. However their importance increases in molecules without a permanent dipole  Read Disturbance of the electron cloud, caused by applying sections 13.1, 12.6 (in that order) an electric/magnetic field or by asymmetric movement of molecules or by a polar solvent Practice PS 6 can solve Q 1–5  Induced (or instantaneous) dipole Solutions to term exam 2 will be posted when I’ll have  a chance typing them. Induced dipole in adjacent molecule 3 4 See fig 12.15 Two types:  Dipole–induce dipole Ex.CO 2dissolving in H2O  Induce dipole–inducedipole Ex.I 2 Weak forces Dipole–induced dipole typically 2–10 kJ/mol Induced dipole–induced dipole 0.05–40 kJ/mol But LDF increase in strength with increase in atomic size. More e –  greater opportunity to disturb e cloud  stronger induced dipole 5 6 Look at the halogens. Summary of bonding and nonbonding forces Homogeneous diatomics No dipole–dipole forces  Only London dispersion forces At room temperature F2weLkD  gas Cl2 still weak LD  gas Br2 mediumLD  liquid I2strongeD  solid Increase size  strongerLD  hardtrreak  higher mp and bp Remember IMF (solid) > IMF (liquid) > IMF (gas) 7 8 Liquids Qualitative solubility Gases condense when intermolecular forces become "Like dissolves like"
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