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Chapter 6

Chapter 6 Textbook Notes.docx

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Bob Koch

Linguistics 101 Chapter 6 6.1 The Nature of Meaning - Semantics – the study of meaning 6.1.1 Semantic Relations among Words - Synonyms – words or expressions that have the same meaning (vacation, holidays) - Perfect synonymy is rare, they may be interchangeable in particular contexts but their meanings are not identical (Canada Day is a holiday not vacation) - Antonymy – words or phrases that are opposites with respect to their meaning (boy, girl) - Antonyms may be opposite in one way but alike in other respects (boy/girl are opposite gender wise but similar since both are human - Related Relations (Example of dog… hypernym – word for general class, animal… meronyms – parts such as head, nose, paws… holonym – whole to which parts belong, dog) - Polysemy – when a word has two or more related meanings (bright – shining and intelligent) - Homophony – when a word has a single form with two or more entirely distinct meanings - Homophony words are assumed to be separate words with the same pronunciation rather than a single word with different meanings (light – not heavy and illumination) - Homophones do not need to have identical spellings (write, right) - Homographs – different words with the same spelling with different pronunciations (bow) - Homonyms – words that are both homophones and homographs - Lexical ambiguity – created by polysemy and homophony where a single form has two or more meanings (Liz bought a pen – writing instrument or a small cage) 6.1.2 Semantic Relations Involving Sentences - Paraphrase – two sentences that have the same meaning (The police chased the burglar… The burglar was chased by the police) - Sometimes a paraphrase relation is lost when the sentence contains a quantifier, everyone (Everyone admires his parents… His parents are admired by everyone) - Entailment – when the truth of one sentence guarantees the truth of another sentence (The park wardens killed the bear… The bear is dead) - Contradiction – when two sentences cannot both be true 6.1.3 What is meaning? - Connotation – the set of associa
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