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Hemorrhagic Stroke.pdf

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University of Alberta

Hemorrhagic Stroke CausesBleeding in brain tissue ventricles or subarachnoid space Uncontrolled hypertension can lead to primary intracerebral hemorrhage from spontaneous rupture of small vessels 80 of this type of stroke Ruptured intracranial aneurysm weakened arterial wall bursting can cause subarachnoid hemorrhage Higher risk for males and with older age PathophysiologyWhen the brain is exposed to blood its normal metabolism is disrupted either because of increased intracranial pressure or secondary ischemia due to reduced perfusion pressure and vasospasm Aneurysm or arteriovenous malformation AVM causes symptoms by pressing on cranial nerves or brain tissue or by rupturing and causing a hemorrhage in the cranial subarachnoid space Types 1 Intracerebral hemorrhage bleeding into brain substance common with hypertension and cerebral atherosclerosis can both cause blood vessels to rupture after time also caused by arterial pathology brain tumour use of certain medications oral anticoagulants amphetamines illicit drugs like crack and cocaine usually arterial bleeding sometimes can rupture wall of the lateral ventricle causing intraventricular hemorrhage usually fatal2 Intracranial cerebral aneurysm dilation of cerebral artery walls from weakness in those walls cause unknown but may be atherosclerosis hypertensive vascular disease head trauma or age can have multiple cerebral aneurysms3 Arteriovenous malformations AVM abnormality in embryonal development that causes group of blood vessels in brain to be missing a capillary bed leading to blood vessel dilation and rupture commonly the cause of hemorrhages in young people4 Subarachnoid hemorrhage hemorrhage in the subarachnoid space can be caused by AVM trauma intracranial aneurysm or hypertension
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