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NUTR100 (67)
Chapter

Feb 2 - carbs.doc

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Department
Nutrition
Course
NUTR100
Professor
Sabina Valentine
Semester
Winter

Description
Feb 2: Carbs Regulation of Blood Glucose: Glucagon Glucagon • Produced by alpha cells of the pancreas • Stimulates the breakdown of glycogen to glucose • More glucose is available to cells of the body • Stimulates gluconeogenesis – the production of glucose from amino acids • Overall effect of raising blood glucose Steps of Regulation of Blood Glucose through Glucagon • Glucagon is secreted by pancreas and enters bloodstream • Glucagon stimulates glycogen breakdown • Glucose is secreted into bloodstream and transported to cells Regulation of Blood Glucose Glycemic Index • A foods ability to raise blood glucose levels • Foods with a low GI: • Are better for people with diabetes • Are generally high in fiber • May reduce the risk of heart disease and colon cancer The Role of Carbs: Energy • Each gram of carbs = 4 kcal • Red blood cells rely only on glucose for their energy supply • Both carbs and fats supply energy for daily activities • Glucose is especially important for energy during intense exercise Carbs as Energy • Sufficient energy from carbs prevent production of ketones as an alternate energy source • Excessive ketones can result in high blood acidity and ketoacidosis • High blood acidity damages body tissues • Carbs spare proteins by preventing their breakdown as an energy source • When carb intake is low, proteins are used for gluconeogenesis – the production of new glucose • Relying on body protein as a source of energy (glucose) can, over time, lead to organ damage The Role of Carbs: Fibre • May reduce risk of colon cancer • May reduce risk of HD • May enhance weight loss • Helps prevent constipation, hemorrhoids, and diverticulosis How Much Carbohydrate? • Recommended dietary allowance (RDA) of carbs is 130 g/day just to supply the brain with glucose • 46-65% of daily calorie intake should be in the form of carbs • Added sugar intake should be 25% or less of total energy intake • Carb intake from CCHS 2.2 data: adults get 50.1% of energy from carbs. Kids get 55.4 % of energy from carbs Simple vs. Complex Carbs Diets high in simple sugars: • Can cause dental problems such as cavities and gum disease • Are associated with increased levels of bad cholesterol • Are associated with decrease levels of good cholesterol • Have no link to hyperactivity • May contribute to obesity • The adequate intake (AI) of fibre is 14 grams for every 1000 kcal in the diet; for men, this is 38 grams and for women, this is 25 grams • Average daily fiber intakes for adults aged 19+ are 19.1 for men and 15.6 g for women • Eating whole grain foods, fruits, veggies, and legumes daily will increase your fibre intake Alternative Sweeteners Nutritive sweeteners • Contains 4 kcal of energy per gram • Sucrose, fructose, honey, brown sugar, sugar alcohols Non-nutritive (alternative) sweeteners • Provide little or no energy Acceptable Daily Intakes (ADI) have been established by health Canada for Saccharin, cyclamates, acesulfame-K, aspartame, sucralose, neotame Health Disorders • Three health disorders related to carb metabolism are: Diabetes, hypoglycemia, lactose intolerance Diabetes • Inability to regulate blood glucose levels 3 types of diabetes • Type 1 diabetes • Type 2 diabetes • Getational diabetes Untreated diabetes can cause nerve damage, kidney damage, blindness, and can be fatal Type 1 diabetes • Accounts for 10% of all cases • Patients don't produce enough insulin • Causes hyperglycemia – high blood sugar (glucose) • Requires insulin injections • May be an autoimmune disease Type 2 Diabetes • Most diabetics have type 2 diabetes • Body cells are insensitive or unresponsive to insulin • Excess insulin is often produced • Causes hyperglycemia because cells cannot take in the glucose from the blood • Cause is unclear but genetics, obesity, and physical inactivity play a role • Treated with diet, exercise, and possibly oral medications • Healthy lifestyle choices may prevent or delay onset of type 2 diabetes Prediabetes (impaired fasting glucose) • Conditions in which blood glucose levels are higher than normal but not high enough to be classified as full blown diabetes Metabolic Syndrome • Characterized by abnormal glucose and insulin levels, high blood pressure, imbalance of blood fats, and excess fat around waistline
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