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Feb 3 lipids part 2.doc

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Sabina Valentine

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Feb 2: Lipids part 2 The Role of Lipids: Energy • Fat is very energy dense, containing 9 kcal/g • Much of the energy used during rest comes from fat • Fat is used for energy during exercise, especially after glycogen is depleted • Fat is also used for energy storage Essential Fatty Acids • Two fatty acids cannot be synthesized in the body and must be obtained in the diet Alpha-linoleic acid (omega -3 fatty acid) • Found in veggies, fish and fish oils Linoleic acid (omega 6 fatty acid) • Found in veggie and nut oil Fat soluble vitamins • Vitamins A,D, E, and K are soluble in fat; fat is required for their transport Fat is essential to many body functions • Cell membrane structure • Nerve cell transmissions • Protection of internal organs • Insulation to retain body heat Fat • Fat provides flavour and texture to foods fat contributes to making us feel satiated because • Fats are more energy dense than carbs or protein • Fats take longer to digest How much Fat? • The acceptable macronutrient distribution range (AMDR) for fat: 20-35% of calories from fat • Athletes and highly active people may need more energy from carbs and can reduce their fat intake to 20-25% of total calories The type of fat consumed is important • Saturated fat intake should be as low as possible • Trans fatty acids should be reduced to the absolute minimum • Most fat in our diet should be from monounsaturated fats (ex. Olive oil) Omega 3 Fatty Acids • Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA): may reduce risk of death from a heart attack • Docosahexaeonic acid (DHA): critical for development of CNS and retina of eyes • EPA and DHA are long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids found in fish and fish oils • Canada's food guide recommends eating at least 2 servings of fish per week Food Sources of Fat Visible fats • Fats we knowingly add to food • Butter, cream, mayonnaise, dressings Invisible Fats • Fats hidden in foods • Naturally occurring or added during processing Health Problems From Fat CVD • Dysfunction of the heart or blood vessels • Can result in heart attack or stroke The type of fat in our diet can contribute to or protect against CVD Risk factors for CVD include: • Being overweight • Physical inactivity • Smoking • High BP • Diabetes Blood lipids include: • Chylomicrons • VLDLs – very low density lipoproteins • LDLs – low density lipoproteins “bad cholesterol” • HDLs – high density lipoproteins “good cholesterol” Diets high in saturated fats: • Decrease the removal of LDLs from the blood • Contribute to the formation of plaques that can block arteries • Increase triglyceride levels (chylomicrons and VLDLs) Trans Fatty Acids • Increase blood LDL cholesterol levels and reduce blood HDL cholesterol levels • Are abundant in hydrogenated vegetable oils (margarine, vegetable oil spreads) • Should be reduced to the absolute minimum How can fat intake protect against heart disease? • Diets high in omega-3 fatty acids (along with moderate exercise) can increase HDL “good” cholesterol levels summary • Fats and oils are forms of a larger and more diverse group of substances called
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