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March 22 - pregnancy nutrition.doc

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Sabina Valentine

March 22 – Ch 15 Pregnancy Nutrition Micronutrients Vitamin A • Needs increase by 10% in pregnancy • Excess vitamin A can cause abnormalities in fetal kidneys and nervous system Vitamin D • AI doesn’t increase during pregnancy • Excessive vitamin D can cause developmental disabilities in newborns Calcium • 1000 mg/day, same as for nonpregnant women • Pregnant women absorb calcium better Zinc • Critical for making proteins, DNA, RNA • Need increases 38% during pregnancy Iron • Increased need for RBC increases the need for iron by 50% • Fetal need for iron increases in 3 trimester • Fetus will take iron from mother causing iron-deficient anemia Sodium • 1500 mg/day, same as for nonpregnant women Iodine • Need for iodine increases significantly • 220 micrograms per day can obtained from iodized salt Fluids During Pregnancy The need for fluids increases to 3 liters per day for • Increase in the moms BV • Regulating body temperature • Production of amniotic fluid to protect and cushion the fetus • Combat fluid retention and constipation • Prevent urinary tract infections Nutrition Related Concerns Nutrition-related problems during pregnancy can include: • Morning sickness • Cravings and aversions • Heartburn • Constipation and hemorrhoids • Gestational diabetes • Pre-eclampsia Nutrition-Related Concerns • Adolescent pregnancy • Vegetarianism • Dieting • Caffeine • Alcohol • Exercise • Food-borne illness Morning Sickness Morning sickness: nausea and vomiting associated with pregnancy • Can occur at any time; often lasts all day • May begin after the 1 missed period and last 12-16 weeks • High levels of 2 pregnancy hormones may be the cause • No cure, but symptoms can be reduced Cravings and Aversions Most women crave a certain type of food (sweet, salty) rather than a specific food • Little evidence supports the idea that cravings indicate a deficiency • Pica: craving a non-food item (ice, clay) • Food aversions are common, but not universal among pregnant women Heartburn • Heartburn occurs when the schinter above the stomach relaxes, allowing stomach acid into the esophagus • Hormones in pregnancy relax smooth muscles, thereby increasing heartburn • Enlargement of uterus pushes up on the stomach and compounds the problem Constipation and Hemorrhoids • Pr
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