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March 25 ch 15 pregnancy nution.doc

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Sabina Valentine

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March 25 – Ch 15 Pregnancy Nutrition Breastfeeding • Lactation: production of breast milk • Prolactin: hormone responsible for milk synthesis • Prolactin is produced toward the end of pregnancy • Prolactin is suppressed by estrogen and progesterone until childbirth • Colostrums: first milk produced; rich in proteins, antibodies, vitamins, minerals • Milk production requires 700-800 kcal/day • Lactating women should consume an extra 500 kcal/day above their own needs • This allows a woman to gradually lose weight (1-4 pounds per month) Benefits of breastfeeding include: • High quality nutrition • Protection from allergies and infections • Assisting the mom in weight loss • Suppressing ovulation • Opportunity for bonding • Convenient, cost efficient Obstacles to breastfeeding include: • Many harmful substances are passed into breast milk, including: drugs, caffeine, nicotine, prescription and OTC meds • HIV is passed through breast milk • Conflicts with moms employment Infant Nutrition Optimal nutrition is critical in the first year because • The babys organs are developing • The NS continues to develop st • Babies typically grow 10 inches in length and triple their weight in the 1 year Infants nutritional needs are unique because: • Their energy needs are high to support rapid growth • Their digestive tracts and kidneys are still immature • They are small in size Infants need: • 50 kcal per pound of body weight per day • At least 40% of calories from fat • No more than 20% of calories from protein • 2 ounces of fluid per pound of body weight • WHO recommends breastfeeding for at least the first 2 years • Breast milk or formula should be supplemented with solid food beginning at around 6 months Infants shouldn’t eat: • Foods they choke on • Corn syrup or honey • Goats milk • Cows milk • Large quantities of fruit juice • Too much salt or sugar • Too much breast milk or formula Nutrition related concerns for infants include: • Allergies • Dehydration • Colic • Anemia • Nursing bottle syndrome • Lead poisoning Allergies • Solid food should be introduced one at a time for a week to watch for allergies Dehydration • Extremely dangerous for infants • Caused by diarrhea, vomiting, inadequate fluid intake • Pediatric electrolyte solution may be used Colic • Uncontrollable crying that can last for hours • Precise cause is unknown Anemia • Infants are born with enough iron for only 6 months • Anemia can develop after that Nursing Bottle Syndrome • Leaving an infant alone with a bottle can lead to cavities and tooth decay • Rather than a bottle, begin using a cup by 8 months and no bottle after 18 months Lead Poisoning • Especially t
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