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Nutrition (77)
NUTR100 (67)

Feb 11 - fluids.doc

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Sabina Valentine

Feb 11 – Fluids Maintaining Water Balance Taking in water • Most water enters the body through beverages • Some foods have very high water contents (many fruits and veggies are greater than 90% water) • Metabolic water is a product of many chemical reactions in the body and contributes 10-14% of the bodys needs Functions of Water • Essential for life • Required for fluid and electrolyte balance and many metabolic reactions Recommendation for water • Varies with climate, activity and body size • Recommendation for adult men is 3.7 liters • Recommendation for adult women is 2.7 liters Water What if you drink too much water? • Becoming over hydrated is rare • Can result in a dilution of sodium leading to hyponatermia, a life threatening condition What if you don't drink enough water? • Dehydration • Infants and elderly are especially vulnerable Sodium Functions of Sodium • Fluid and electrolyte balance • Associated with BP and pH balance in the body • Required for nerve impulse transmission • Assists in the transport of certain nutrients (ex. Glucose) into body cells Recommended Intake • Adequate intake is 1.5 g/day (1500 mg/day) • Upper level is 2.3 g/day (2300 mg/day) Sodium intakes • Most sodium is consumed as sodium chloride (NaCl) • CCHSA 2.2 data showed Canadians consume an average of 3092 mg sodium daily; 77% is from processed foods • At least ¾ of canadians have sodium intakes that exceed the UL Sodium Content of Foods • Many high sodium foods can be replaced by a lower sodium alternative • Choose low sodium pickles, pork roast, low sodium soup, and baked potatoes What if you consume too much sodium? • Hypernatremia is abnormally high blood sodium concentration • Can happen to patients with congestive heart failure or kidney disease • Results in high BV, edema, and high BP What if you don't consume enough sodium? • Hyponatremia is an abnormally low blood sodium level • Can result from prolonged vomiting, diarrhea, or sweating • Has been seen in marathon athletes who consume too much water Potassium Functions of Potassium • Fluid and electrolyte balance • Very important in muscle contractions and transmission of nerve impulses • High potassium intake helps to maintain a lower BP Recommended intake • AI of potassium is 4.7 mg/day (4700 mg/day) Sources of Potassium • Processed foods are usually low in potassium • Fresh fruit and veggies and whole grains are good sources of potassium What if you consume too much potassium? • Hyperkalemia is a high blood potassium level • Can occur in patients with kidney disease • Can alter normal heart rhythm resulting in a heart attack What if you don't consume enough potassium? • Hypokalemia is low blood potassium levels • Can be seen in patients wit
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