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Jan 26.doc

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Department
Nutrition
Course Code
NUTR100
Professor
Sabina Valentine

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Jan 26: Chap 3What Happens to the Food we eat? Objectives 1. Distinguish between appetite and hunger, describing the mechanisms that stimulate each 2. Draw a picture of the gastrointestinal tract, including all major and accessory organs 3. Describe the contribution of each organ of the gastrointestinal system to the digestion, absorption, and elimination of food 4. Identify some of the enzymes involved in digesting foods and list the source of these enzymes 5. Describe the causes, symptoms, and treatments of gastroesophageal reflux disease and ulcers 6. Describe three warning signs of dehydration resulting from diarrhea Why Do we eat? Food provides us with: • Energy for body processes • Heat for body temperature regulation • Building blocks for growth and maintenance of body tissues Why Do We Want To Eat? • Food is intimately connected to our sense of taste, but also stimulates our senses of: • Sight • Smell • Touch • Hearing Appetite: psychological desire to eat certain foods (strong cravings even when we’re not hungry are due to appetite) Hunger: physiological sensation that prompts us to eat Satiety: the feeling of being full The signals that prompt us to eat include: • Nerve receptors in the stomach send signals to the brain to indicate if the stomach is full or empty • Blood glucose levels trigger the release of hormones called insulin and glucagon • The hypothalamus region of the brain receives these signals Hormones: chemicals produced in specialized glands that travel in the bloodstream to target organs in other parts of the body • Some hormones stimulate food intake • Some hormones produce feelings of satiety Foods have differing effects on our feelings of hunger • Proteins have the highest satiety value • Carbs have the lowest satiety value • Bulky foods (fibre) provide a sense of satiety • Solid foods are more filling than semi-solid foods or liquids Organization of The Body • Atoms are the smallest units of matter • Atoms bond to each other to form molecules • Molecules are groups of atoms bonded in specific configurations (
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