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PEDS100 Chapter Notes -Transverse Plane, Abdominopelvic Cavity, Peritoneal Cavity

Physical Education and Sport
Course Code
Gail Amort- Larson

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Cytology: studies internal structures of cells
-cells are the simplest structural and functional unit of life
adult humans have 60-100 trillion cells
Histology: studies properties and structure of tissue
**** 4 Major Families of Tissues
Gross anatomy: studies organ systems and their relationships with the body as a
Embryology: studies developmental processes during the first 2 months of
Homeostasis: The maintenance of a relatively stable internal environment
11 Organ Systems
Integumentary System: Protection from environmental hazards, temperature control
Skeletal System: Supports, protects tissues, stores minerals, forms blood cells
Muscular System: Allows for locomotion, provides support, provides heat
Nervous System: Directs immediate responses to stimuli, usually by coordinating the
activities of other organ systems
Endocrine System: Directs long term changes in organ systems
Cardiovascular System: Transports cells and dissolved materials, including nutrients,
wastes, and gases
Lymphoid System: Defends against infection and disease, returns tissue fluid to
Respiratory System: Delivers air to sites where gas exchange can occur between the
air and circulating blood
Digestive System: Processes food and absorbs nutrients
Urinary System: Eliminates waste, excess water, and salts
Reproductive System Male: Produces sex cells and hormones
Reproductive System Female: Produces sex cells and hormones, supports
embryonic development from fertilization to birth
Vital Properties and Processes all organisms share :
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Irritability: The response to changes in an immediate environment
Adaptability: Organism’s longer-lasting changes in response to their environment
2.Growth and Differentiation:
Differentiation: Specialization of individual cells to perform specific functions
5.Metabolism and Excretion
Metabolism: All chemical operations underway in the body
Catabolism: Breakdown of complex molecules into simple ones
Anabolism: Synthesis of complex molecules from simple ones
Respiration: absorption, transport, and use of oxygen by cells
Excretion: Removal of excess or harmful waste products
Language of Anatomy
Abdominopelvic quadrants: divides abdominopelvic surface into 4 quadrants,
horizontal and vertical lines intersecting at umbilicus(navel) RUQ, RLQ, LUQ, LLQ
Abdominopelvic Regions: Used to describe locations and orientations of internal
organs more precisely. There are 9 regions
Anatomical Position: standing upright, arms at sides, palms facing forward, feet flat
on floor, face straight ahead
Supine:lying face up
Prone: Lying face down
Anatomical Planes and Sections
Frontal/coronal: Divides the body into posterior and anterior sections
Sagittal: Divides the body into right and left portions
-Midsagittal: Divides the body into precisely equal right and left portions
Transverse: Divides the body into superior and inferior sections
Serial Reconstruction: Making a series of sections along small intervals for a more
accurate and complete picture
Anatomical Terms of Directions(Always decided from the anatomical position)
Superior: Towards the top of the head, neck or trunk, not to be used when referencing
Inferior: Towards the bottom of the head, neck, or trunk, not to be used when
referencing limbs
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