Basic Terminology, Terms of Movement

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Physical Education and Sport
Gail Amort- Larson

Terminology: •Cytology: studies internal structures of cells -cells are the simplest structural and functional unit of life •adult humans have 60-100 trillion cells •Histology: studies properties and structure of tissue ****4 Major Families of Tissues -epithelial -connective* -muscle -nervous •Gross anatomy: studies organ systems and their relationships with the body as a whole •Embryology: studies developmental processes during the first 2 months of development •Homeostasis: The maintenance of a relatively stable internal environment 11 Organ Systems •Integumentary System: Protection from environmental hazards, temperature control •Skeletal System: Supports, protects tissues, stores minerals, forms blood cells •Muscular System: Allows for locomotion, provides support, provides heat •Nervous System: Directs immediate responses to stimuli, usually by coordinating the activities of other organ systems •Endocrine System: Directs long term changes in organ systems •Cardiovascular System: Transports cells and dissolved materials, including nutrients, wastes, and gases •Lymphoid System: Defends against infection and disease, returns tissue fluid to bloodstream •Respiratory System: Delivers air to sites where gas exchange can occur between the air and circulating blood •Digestive System: Processes food and absorbs nutrients •Urinary System: Eliminates waste, excess water, and salts •Reproductive System Male: Produces sex cells and hormones •Reproductive System Female: Produces sex cells and hormones, supports embryonic development from fertilization to birth Vital Properties and Processes all organisms share : 1.Responsiveness: •Irritability: The response to changes in an immediate environment •Adaptability: Organism’s longer-lasting changes in response to their environment 2.Growth and Differentiation: •Differentiation: Specialization of individual cells to perform specific functions 3.Reproduction 4.Movement 5.Metabolism and Excretion •Metabolism: All chemical operations underway in the body •Catabolism: Breakdown of complex molecules into simple ones •Anabolism: Synthesis of complex molecules from simple ones •Respiration: absorption, transport, and use of oxygen by cells •Excretion: Removal of excess or harmful waste products Language of Anatomy •Abdominopelvic quadrants: divides abdominopelvic surface into 4 quadrants, horizontal and vertical lines intersecting at umbilicus(navel) RUQ, RLQ, LUQ, LLQ •Abdominopelvic Regions: Used to describe locations and orientations of internal organs more precisely. There are 9 regions •Anatomical Position: standing upright, arms at sides, palms facing forward, feet flat on floor, face straight ahead •Supine:lying face up •Prone: Lying face down Anatomical Planes and Sections •Frontal/coronal: Divides the body into posterior and anterior sections •Sagittal: Divides the body into right and left portions -Midsagittal: Divides the body into precisely equal right and left portions •Transverse: Divides the body into superior and inferior sections •Serial Reconstruction: Making a series of sections along small intervals for a more accurate and complete picture Anatomical Terms of Directions (Always decided from the anatomical position) Superior: Towards the top of the head, neck or trunk, not to be used when referencing limbs Inferior: Towards the bottom of the head, neck, or trunk, not to be used when referencing limbs *Top of the foot is the dorsal aspect, only part of the body you can’t see the anterior side of in anatomical position Proxima
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