Osteology and Arthology Overview

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Department
Physical Education and Sport
Course
PEDS100
Professor
Gail Amort- Larson
Semester
Fall

Description
Osteology and Arthology Classification of Bones- •Long bones: Tubular shaft, ends are enlarged, dimensions don’t matter •Flat Bones: Thin, all have outer covering of very dense bone, spongy bone inside. Ex skull, rib, sternum, part of scapula •Pneumatized Bones: Bones with holes(sinuses) in them. Ex frontal bone •Irregular Bones: Have structures sticking out on sides. Ex vertebra •Short Bones: Usually cube shaped •Sesamoid Bone: Forms in tendons. Ex patella forms after birth, pisiform bone Classification of Bones-Skeletal Axial: -Skull (22) -Vertebrae (26) variation in numbers may come in with caucyx and sacrum, -Rib cage (24), -Hyoid (1) high up in neck, muscles for swallowing and tongue attach; no other bones articulate with it, -Auditory ossicles (6) Appendicular: -Pectoral Girdle: Clavicle, scapula -Upper Extremity -Pelvic Girdle -Lower Extremity:Hip down to toes Bone Markings Diaphysis: The tubular shaft of a long bone Epiphysis: The end portion of a long bone that has a separate ossification centre Tuberosity: A rough projection Tubercle: A small eminence Trochanter: A large, very prominent eminence Process: A bony prominence Articular surface: A joint surface Facet: A small articular surface Condyle: A rounded articular surface Epicondyle: A non articular projection next to a condyle Head: A large, rounded end of a bone Neck: The part between the head and the diaphysis; usually separated into separate surgical and anatomical necks Fossa: A shallow depression Foramen: A round hole (a neurovascular opening) Fissure: A hole, shaped more like a crack or cleft Sulcus: A long, broad groove Classification of Joints •Structure-form •Function: Amount of movement -Immoveable or slightly moveable joints tend to be in the axial skeleton -Freely moveable joints are more common in the appendicular skeleton Arthrology: The study of joints •joints or articulations are connections between 2 or more bones Functionally: Synarthrosis: No movement Amphyarthrosis: Little movement Diarthrosis: Free movement Structurally: Bony Fusion Joints: Synarthrosis -Synostosis: Suture in a child is replaced by bone in an adult -Metopic Suture Fibrous Joints: Synarthrosis, Amphyarthrosis -
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