Shoulder Joint/Humerus

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Physical Education and Sport
Gail Amort- Larson

Shoulder Joint (Glenohumeral joint): •loose, shallow joint, allows greatest range of motion of any joint in body •ball and socket joint formed by head of humerus with glenoid cavity of scapula •Stability is mostly provided by ligaments, and surrounding skeletal muscles and their associated tendons •Glenoid labrum: connected to margin of glenoid cavity by fibrous cartilage, which deepens the joint. ring of dense, irregular connective tissue. serves as attachment site for glenohumeral ligaments and long head of biceps brachii •articular capsule extends from scapular neck to humerus, oversized, weakest at inferior surface. •when in anatomical position capsule is tight superiorly, loose inferiorly and anteriorly Ligaments : •Glenohumeral ligaments: anterior regions where capsule surrounding shoulder thickens. Superior, middle/inferior blend together. participates in joint stabilization only as humerus approaches or exceeds limits of normal motion •Coracohumeral ligament: originates at base of coracoid process and inserts on head of humerus. strengthens superior part of articular capsule, helps support weight of upper limb •Coracoacromial ligament: spans gap between coracoid process and acromion, just superior to capsule. provides additional support to superior surface of capsule •Acromioclavicular ligament: binds acromion to clavicle, restricts clavicular movement at acromial end. •Shoulder separation is common injury involving partial or complete dislocation of acromioclavicular joint, can result from blow to superior surface of shoulder, acromion is forcibly depressed, clavicle held back by strong muscles •Coracoclavicular ligaments: tie clavicle to coracoid process, limit relative motion between clavicle and scapula •Transverse humeral ligament: extends between greater and lesser tubercles, holds down tendon of long head of biceps brachii muscle in intertubercular groove of humerus Muscles: •Muscles that move humerus stabilize glenohumeral joint more than all ligaments and capsular fibers combined. •Rotator cuff: muscles that support shoulder, limit its movement range Bur
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