Nervous System

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University of Alberta
Physical Education and Sport
Gail Amort- Larson

Nervous System •Central nervous system: controls everything encased by bone -Brain -Spinal Cord •Peripheral nervous system: everything outside of bone -Cranial nerves(12 pairs) (has both sensory and motor neurons) -Peripheral nerves (31 pairs) (has both sensory and motor neurons) Peripheral Nervous System •Conveys impulses to and from brain and spinal cord • Sensory neurons : Afferent (convey impulses towards CNS) • Motor neurons: Efferent (convey impulses away from CNS) • Mixed neurons: Composed of sensory and motor neurons •Dermatomes: area of skin innervated by the sensory fibers of a single spinal nerve Cross section of Spinal Cord: P: Posterior horn, dorsal rootlets connect here, sensory neurons travel through here A: Anterior horn, anterior rootlets connect here, motor neurons travel through here •cell bodies found in dorsal root ganglia •Spinal nerve root: made up of sensory and motor fibers •Signal travels along sensory fibers, through dorsal root ganglia along posterior, can either travel to Brain, or if a reflex travels out anterior route along motor fibers •motor fibers cause muscles to contract •Intervertebral disc between vertebrae •8 spinal nerve roots in neck (only 7 bones) nerve roots come out ABOVE vertebrae (C1 spinal nerve root comes out above C1) space between C7 spinal nerve root and T1 spinal nerve root is where C8 spinal nerve root comes out of •12 spinal nerve roots in thoracic region (12 bones) Spinal nerve roots come out BELOW vertebrae (T1 spinal nerve root comes out below T1 vertebrae) •5 spinal nerve roots in lumbar (5 bones) •5 spinal nerve roots in sacral region (5 bones) •At least 1 spinal nerve root in coccyx region •Rami: spinal nerve splits into 2 branches after it leaves the vertebrae -Dorsal Rami: innervates deep muscles -Ventral Rami: innervates superficial muscles Segmental Spinal Nerves: Only innervate certain areas (trunk, upper abdominal) -Anterior Rami: T2-T12, only looks after ribs (nipple is T4, umbilical T10) Plexuses •compl
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