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University of Alberta
Physical Education and Sport
Gail Amort- Larson

Tissues -4 primary tissue types: Epithelial tissue, connective tissue, muscle tissue, neural tissue Epithelial Tissue: •cover exposed surfaces •line internal passageways and chambers •produce glandular secretions •Cellularity: cells bound closely by cell junctions, little or no space between cells •Polarity: Apical surface(free surface) Basal surface uneven distribution of cytoplasmic components and organelles between exposed and attached surfaces •Attachment: basal surface of epithelium is bound to thin basal lamina(complex structure produced by epithelium and underlying connective tissue. Anchors organs(tissue) lowest level of attachment for a structure) •Avascularity: Don’t contain blood vessels, obtain nutrients by diffusion & osmosis •Arranged into sheets or layers:composed of a sheet of cells,one or more layer thick •Regeneration: damaged or lost cells at surface are continually replaced Functions: •Provide physical protection from bacteria, trauma •Control permeability •Provide sensation, innervated by sensory neurons •Produce specialized secretions: gland cells produce secretions, scattered among other cell types •Epithelial maintenance and renewal is self-perpetuated, constantly losing cells off your skin, regenerated by stem cell division Classification of Epithelia: By # of layers: -Simple Epithelium: one layer of cells covering basal lamina -Stratified Epithelium: 2 or more layers of cells above basal lamina By Shape: *Always identify shape of tissue by outermost layer* -Squamous Epithelium: very narrow, thin -Simple Squamous:very thin, part of eyes, alveoli of lungs, absorption -Stratified Squamous: Surface of skin, were mechanical stresses are severe -Cuboidal Epithelia: equal sides, appear square, nucleus is near center -Simple Cuboidal Epithelium: filtration, kidney tubule -Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium: sweat glad duct -Transitional: very specialized (only found in urinary system) Cell has ability to stretch (always go back to original shape), urinary bladder -Columnar: A lot taller cell (nucleus is towards the base) -Simple columnar epithelium: a lot of tissue has goblet cells which produce mucus, intestinal lining -Pseudostratified columnar epithelium: also has goblet cells, trachlea -Stratified columnar epithelium: rare, salivary gland duct in neck & mouth area Glandular Epithelia •Exocrine: secretes outwards towards skin/mouth •Serous glands: secrete enzymes (digest
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