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PEDS100 Chapter Notes -Articular Processes, Sacrum, Thoracic Vertebrae

Physical Education and Sport
Course Code
Gail Amort- Larson

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Sacrum: part of both appendicular and axial skeleton
-Narrow caudal portion is sacral apex, broad superior surface base
-Sacral promontory: prominent bulge at anterior tip of base
-superior articular processes form synovial joints with last lumbar vertebra, only on
-Sacral canal begins between those processes. Spinal nerve roots continue into
sacrum through this canal. extends length of sacrum ending at sacral hiatus
-Median sacral crest: series of elevations formed by fused sacral vertebra
-Sacral Cornu: laminae of 5th sacral vertebra don’t contact each other at midline
-Sacral foramina: on either side of median sacral crest
-Ala: fused transverse processes “wing”
-Auricular surface: articulates with auricular surface of innominate bone
-Sacral tuberosity: ligaments attach here
-formed by 3-5(often 4) coccygeal vertebrae fusing together by 26
-Coccygeal cornu: prominent laminae of first coccygeal vertebrae, curves to meet
cornua of sacrum. Males point anteriorly, females inferiorly
Thoracic Cage:
-Made up of thoracic vertebrae, ribs, and sternum
-Protects heart, lungs, thymus, and other structures within thoracic cavity
-Site of attachment for muscles involving respiration, position of the vertebral
column, and movements of the pectoral girdle and upper limbs
Ribs:(12 pairs)
-originate on or between thoracic vertebrae, end in wall of thoracic cavity
-First 7 pairs called true ribs(vertebrosternal ribs). At anterior body wall true ribs
connect to sternum by separate cartilages called costal cartilages. 7th rib attaches
to junction between body of sternum and xiphoid process
-Beginning with first rib, ribs gradually increase in length and radius of curvature
-Ribs 8-12 called false ribs (vertebrochondral ribs)don’t attach directly to sternum.
Costal cartilages of ribs 8-12 fuse together before reaching sternum
-Ribs 11 and 12 called floating ribs because they don’t connect with sternum
-Head(capitulum) of rib articulates with body of a thoracic vertebra or between
adjacent vertebral bodies. After short neck, tubercle projects dorsally which
articulates with transverse process of vertebra.
-Angle of rib indicates where body (shaft) begins curving towards sternum. Costal
groove along internal inferior border marks path of blood vessels/nerves
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