Sacrum, Coccyx, Ribs, Sternum

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Physical Education and Sport
Gail Amort- Larson

Sacrum : part of both appendicular and axial skeleton - Narrow caudal portion is sacral apex, broad superior surface base - Sacral promontory: prominent bulge at anterior tip of base - superior articular processes form synovial joints with last lumbar vertebra, only on S1 - Sacral canal begins between those processes. Spinal nerve roots continue into sacrum through this canal. extends length of sacrum ending at sacral hiatus - Median sacral crest: series of elevations formed by fused sacral vertebra - Sacral Cornu: laminae of 5th sacral vertebra don’t contact each other at midline - Sacral foramina: on either side of median sacral crest - Ala: fused transverse processes “wing” - Auricular surface: articulates with auricular surface of innominate bone - Sacral tuberosity: ligaments attach here Coccyx: -formed by 3-5(often 4) coccygeal vertebrae fusing together by 26 -Coccygeal cornu: prominent laminae of first coccygeal vertebrae, curves to meet cornua of sacrum. Males point anteriorly, females inferiorly Thoracic Cage: -Made up of thoracic vertebrae, ribs, and sternum -Protects heart, lungs, thymus, and other structures within thoracic cavity -Site of attachment for muscles involving respiration, position of the vertebral column, and movements of the pectoral girdle and upper limbs Ribs:(12 pairs) -originate on or between thoracic vertebrae, end in wall of thoracic cavity -First 7 pairs called true ribs(vertebrosternal ribs). At anterior body wall true ribs connect to sternum by separate cartilages ca
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